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A new preclinical study found that a brief period of extended wakefulness before surgery enhances pain and prolongs recovery time after surgery. Caffeine administration helped to reduce the harmful effects of sleep loss on subsequent surgical pain.
A study of kidney cancer incidence in California over 25 years is the first report to demonstrate that the rising rate of kidney cancer seen in the US over the past two decades may have ended.
Researchers have identified the mechanism behind red blood cell specialization and revealed that it is controlled by an enzyme called UBE2O. This finding could spark the development of new treatments for blood disorders and cancers.
Leading pediatrics and sleep associations agree: Teens shouldn't start school so early. Yet recent research finds parents are split almost down the middle on whether they support delays in school start times that might permit their 13- to 17-year-olds to sleep later on school days.
Smokers were found to be 20 percent more likely to quit smoking when packs of cigarettes cost just one dollar more, according to a new public health study.
Avian flu can be transmitted from birds to humans; transmission among humans, however, is limited. The reason may be an eggshell-like mineral layer that the virus acquires due to the high calcium concentration in the intestines of birds. These mineralized viruses are significantly more infectious and, in addition, more robust and heat stable than the native viruses.
A theory that has gained considerable attention in international media suggest that antidepressant drugs, such as the SSRIs, do not exert any actual antidepressant effect. A research group has now analyzed data from clinical trials and can rebut this theory.
Researchers have revealed that a molecule called Daple is essential for the correct orientation and coordinated beating of cilia on the surface of cells lining ventricles in the brain. Without Daple, the cilia develop a random arrangement and cannot produce a uniform flow of CSF. This in turn leads to a build-up of fluid, which is associated with swelling of the head, known as hydrocephalus.
Flexibility in the workplace is the key to helping women maintain their career trajectory after childbirth, new research has shown.
Filtering information for search engines, acting as an opponent during a board game or recognizing images: Artificial intelligence has far outpaced human intelligence in certain tasks. Researchers are showing how ideas from computer science could revolutionize brain research. They illustrate how a self-learning algorithm decodes human brain signals that were measured by an electroencephalogram (EEG).
Scientists have discovered that a fatty liver can cause damage to other organs. They demonstrate the effects of fatty liver disease on the function of the hormone-producing islet cells in the pancreas and on renal function.
Researchers have used the first international, multi-ethnic birth weight standard, known as the INTERGROWTH-21st, to describe the global burden of suboptimal fetal growth.
A drug that is blocked by the EU regulatory system has now been found to improve the quality of life of people with multiple sclerosis (MS), according to a new study.
Patients at risk of heart attacks and strokes may be spotted earlier thanks to a diagnosis tool that uses near-infrared light to identify high-risk arterial plaques.
Genomic instability is the main risk factor for tumor development in humans. Therefore understanding its origin and and exploring therapeutic targets is paramount. Histone 1 silences a region of the genome that causes irreparable DNA damage when translated and is lethal for the organism.
Every tissue has its own pattern of active alleles, a large-scale study has found. Researchers were able to show that the differential allele activity is regulated by tissue-specific, regulatory DNA elements known as enhancers - a process that could also be involved in many diseases.
Medical researchers have identified the likely origin of the cross-reactivity between cypress pollen, peaches and citrus fruits. Their work has shown that these sources contain allergens belonging to a new family of proteins involved in pollen food associated syndrome. This discovery paves the way for the development of novel allergy diagnostic tests.
Ever more people are suffering from cardiac insufficiency. The main cause of reduced cardiac functionality lies in the irreversible loss of cardiac muscle cells due to disease, especially ischemic diseases such as cardiac infarction. There is still no treatment to reverse damage of this nature. Research is ongoing to develop methods of repairing such damage to normalize cardiac function. A promising approach: cardiac muscle tissue made of spider silk.
Women who experience hypertension during pregnancy face an increased risk of heart disease and hypertension later in life, according to a new study.
Researchers have studied the correlation between athletic ability and finger length.
Taking the contraceptive pill, particularly for seven or more consecutive years, is linked to a lowered risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis.
New research suggests that teenagers who had tried an e-cigarette were almost four times more likely to start smoking a conventional cigarette within a year, when compared to classmates who had not.
A new study on 240 emergency room patients shows just how much of a role a person's cholesterol plays, when in a crystallized state, during a heart attack.
A new study suggests long-term mortality trends may be better understood by focusing on life-years lost -- remaining life expectancy for a decedent -- instead of solely looking at cause of death.
Tobacco companies have known for decades that, without counseling, NRT hardly ever works, and that consumers often use it to complement smoking. This insight from the formerly secret industry documents, outlines a new report.
As politicians struggle to solve the nation's healthcare problems, a new study finds a way to improve health and lower costs among Medicaid and uninsured patients. Researchers showed that patients who received support from community health workers (CHWs) had 30 percent fewer hospital admissions in one year compared to those who did not receive CHW support. The results also showed reductions in cigarette smoking, obesity, diabetes severity, and mental illness.
By combining an FDA-approved cancer immunotherapy with an emerging tumor-roasting nanotechnology, researchers improved the efficacy of both therapies in a proof-of-concept study using mice. The potent combination also attacked satellite tumors and distant cancerous cells, completely curing two mice and effectively vaccinating one against the disease.
Children with lower diversity of microbial species in their intestines are more susceptible to severe infection with the Entamoeba histolytica parasite, according to a new study.
Treatment of tuberculosis involves a combination of several drugs, sometimes including drugs from a class known as fluoroquinolones. Using computer simulations, scientists have shown that the fluoroquinolone known as moxifloxacin may be superior to two other commonly used fluoroquinolones.
Scientists have developed a new way to detect which areas of the brain contribute most greatly to epilepsy seizures, according to a new study. The strategy could help surgeons select specific brain areas for removal to stop seizures.
Scientists have created healthy offspring from genetically infertile male mice, offering a potential new approach to tackling a common genetic cause of human infertility.
It is now possible to scour complete human genomes for the presence of disease-associated genes without revealing any genetic information not directly associated with the inquiry, say researchers.
Researchers have developed a new terahertz imaging approach that, for the first time, can acquire micron-scale resolution images while retaining computational approaches designed to speed up image acquisition.
A new Pathology Atlas is launched today with an analysis of all human genes in all major cancers showing the consequence of their corresponding protein levels for overall patient survival. The difference in expression patterns of individual cancers observed in the study strongly reinforces the need for personalized cancer treatment based on precision medicine.
Vitamin C may 'tell' faulty stem cells in the bone marrow to mature and die normally, instead of multiplying to cause blood cancers.
Algal blooms at two Ohio lakes cost Ohio homeowners $152 million in lost property value over six years, researchers estimate. Meanwhile, a related study suggests that algae is driving anglers away from Lake Erie, causing fishing license sales to drop at least 10 percent every time a bloom reaches a moderate level of health risk.
If you could save the lives of five people by pushing another bystander in front of a train to his death, would you do it? And should it make any difference if that choice is presented in a language you speak, but isn't your native tongue? Psychologists know communicating in a foreign language matters. In a new study, they take a major step toward understanding why.
Researchers hope an artificial womb used to incubate healthy baby lambs can be used in future technology for premature babies.
Chemists have developed a super-photostable fluorescent dye, PhoxBright 430 (PB430), to visualize cellular ultrastructure by super resolution microscopy. The exceptional photostability of this new dye enables continuous STED imaging and together with its ability to fluorescently label proteins, PB430 demonstrates its use in the 3D construction and multicolor imaging of biological structures.
Immortalization of cells is a necessary step in the development of cancer, and scientists think that the main cause is turning on an enzyme -- telomerase -- that lengthens chromosomal telomeres and prevents normal cell death. A new study shows that turning on telomerase is not a one-step process. In melanoma, and probably other cancers, a mutation turns up telomerase slightly, keeping the cell alive long enough for other changes that up-regulate telomerase.
A protein called COUP-TFII determines whether a mouse embryo develops a male reproductive tract, according to new research. The discovery changes the long-standing belief that an embryo will automatically become female unless androgens, or male hormones, in the embryo make it male.
Adding another reason for doctors to avoid the overuse of antibiotics, new research shows that a reduction in the variety of microbes in the gut interferes with the immune system's ability to fight off disease.
Early surgery to repair tears of one of the shoulder rotator cuff muscles provides lasting improvement in strength, function, and other outcomes, reports a study.
Researchers have devised a method to selectively erase particular fear memories by weakening the connections between neurons involved in forming these memories. In their experiments, they found that fear memory can be manipulated in such a way that some beneficial memories are retained while others, detrimental to our daily life, are suppressed. The research, done using a mouse model, offers insights into how PTSD/specific phobias may be better treated.
New findings challenge existing dogma that neurons release fixed amounts of chemical signal at any one time and could have implications for brain disorders including Parkinson's and schizhophrenia.
Engineers are working on developing new light-weight ceramic materials that resist fracture. They are working to better understand exactly how these materials, which are suited for Soldier personal protection and Army systems, fracture, and how they can be further improved. They are focusing on failure through cracking; the material eventually disintegrates into a granular-like state through a process called comminution.
Older adults are drawn to Facebook so they can check out pictures and updates from family and friends, but may resist using the site because they are worried about who will see their own content, according to a team of researchers.
Hemorrhagic fevers are severe viral diseases that are often fatal. Researchers have now identified messenger substances of the immune system, which in infected mice lead to the development of shock.
Neuroscientists who study memory have long believed that when we recall an event, our brains turn on the same hippocampal circuit that was activated when the memory was originally formed. However, neuroscientists have now shown, for the first time, that recalling a memory requires a 'detour' circuit that branches off from the original memory circuit.
The human brain has a region of cells responsible for linking sensory cues to actions and behaviors and cataloging the link as a memory. Cells that form these links have been deemed highly stable and fixed. Now, new research conducted in mice challenge that model, revealing that the neurons responsible for such tasks may be less stable, yet more flexible than previously believed.
Knowing whether to stay in or leave a romantic relationship is often an agonizing experience and that ambivalence can have negative consequences for health and well-being. Now a new study offers insights into what people are deliberating about and what makes the decision so difficult, which could help therapists working with couples and stimulate further research into the decision-making process.
Peroxisomes are required for cells in the innate immune response to bacteria and fungi. Now scientists have found that peroxisomes are necessary for proper functioning of the innate immune system, the body's first line of defense against microorganisms.
A new study suggests it may be possible to slow dangerous infections by manipulating the messages microbes send to one another, allowing the body to defeat an infection without causing the bacteria to develop resistance to the treatment.
A new study found that female college-aged students who reported at least one period of daily self-weighing over a two-year study saw a drop in their body mass index.
Young people between the ages of 15 and 30 living with a chronic illness are three times more likely to attempt suicide than their healthy peers, according to a new study.
Campaigns designed to stop young people 'bolting' drinks can be ineffective and can even make them more likely to do it, new research suggests.
In a nationally representative sample of older US adults, visual impairment was associated with worse cognitive function.
Traditional cultural norms about gendered roles and femininity still matter for women's choice of college major, according to new research. Researcher have shown how long-held cultural norms about femininity may contribute to ongoing gender segregation in academia, and to the college majors that women decide to pursue in particular.
A new study found that four to 6-year-olds shared more after listening to books with human characters than books with anthropomorphic (human-like) animals.
A novel immunotherapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer based on the use of synthetic DNA to directly encode protective antibodies against a cancer-specific protein has been described in a new article.

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