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These pubmed results were generated on 2017/03/26

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In their search of seven databases and analysis of 161 papers, researchers found that 79 obesity syndromes have been previously reported. Of the 79 syndromes, 19 have been genetically solved, to the point where a lab test could confirm a doctor's suspicions. Another 11 have been partially clarified, and 27 have been mapped to a chromosomal region. For the remaining 22 syndromes, neither the gene(s) nor the chromosomal location(s) have yet been identified.
New research on bacteria that cause major problems for those with cystic fibrosis reveals clues as to how it proliferates for so long in the lungs and offers new ideas for treatments to explore.
Molecular motors produce the force that powers the beat of sperm cell tails to generate movement toward the egg cell for fertilization. New research now shows how the molecular motors that power the movement of sperm cells are recognized and specifically transported into the tail region of the cell. This knowledge can pave the way for a better understanding of disease causing mutations causing sterility.
A simple color changing test to help scientists investigate potential cancer drugs has been developed, allowing research to progress at a much greater speed than has been possible until now.
Drugs containing gold have been used for centuries to treat conditions like rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, they might be effective against cancer and HIV. One mechanism by which they work could occur because gold ions force the zinc ions out of zinc fingers -- looped, nucleic acid binding protein domains. American researchers have characterized such 'gold fingers' using ion mobility mass spectrometry. They identified the exact gold binding sites.
A unique, patented wheat can have significant importance to agriculture, the environment and undernourished people in developing countries. Animal tests recently demonstrated that this special wheat increases P and Ca digestibility.
Damage caused to the liver by a low protein diet can be repaired, according to new research.
A new study has found that stem cell therapy can reduce lung inflammation in an animal model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis. Although, still at a pre-clinical stage, these findings have important potential implications for the future treatment of  patients.
New clinical trial results show that stem cells can restore sufficient erectile function to allow previously impotent men to have spontaneous intercourse. This is the first time stem cell therapy has produced patients who have recovered sufficient erectile function to enable intercourse. This is an early trial, which was primarily addressing safety and dosage (a Phase 1 trial), so the results need to be interpreted accordingly.
Almost 4 in 10 men with high-risk or locally advanced prostate cancer (prostate cancer that is likely to or that has already spread beyond the prostate) may be “undertreated” by the failure to use radiotherapy or in some circumstances surgery, according to new results. The most common form of under-treatment is the use of hormonal treatments alone without additional radiotherapy or surgery. This means that some of the men diagnosed with high-risk or locally advanced prostate cancer may not be receiving the best treatment.
The need to pee at night (nocturia) – which affects most people over the age of 60 – is related to the amount of salt in your diet, according to new research presented at the European Society of Urology congress in London.
A new study has found that reducing obstructive sleep apnea (where patients have difficulty in breathing while asleep -often associated with loud snoring) can reduce the need to get up and pee at night (nocturia). This study confirms the link between apnea and nocturia, and supports the idea that lifestyle management may contribute to reducing nocturia in certain cases. Nocturia affects more than half of men and women over the age of 50 and is reported as the most irritating of all voiding symptoms.
Scientists are reporting a test which can predict which patients are most at risk from aggressive prostate cancer, and whether they suffer an increased chance of treatment failure. 
People with learning difficulties are 4 times more likely to die of testicular cancer than the general population. This is the first work relating cancer deaths to learning difficulties, with researchers now testing if this finding applies to all cancers.
A new analysis raises concern over high prescription rates in the USA of a common drug used to treat overactive bladder. The drug, oxybutynin, when taken orally, is consistently linked with cognitive impairment and dementia in the elderly. The analysis shows that oxybutynin, is prescribed in more than a quarter of cases of overactive bladder (27.3%), even though other more suitable drugs are available.
62% of school-age children and 85% of pregnant women in Israel have low iodine intakes, according to the country's first national iodine survey. Government funding and legislation, and a government-regulated program of salt or food iodization, are essential to reducing the deficiency, which poses a high risk of impaired neurological development.
The genomic replication of the Zika virus (ZIKV) is made possible by its 'NS5' protein. Scientists report that they have determined the crystal structure of the entire ZIKV NS5 protein and demonstrated that NS5 is functional when purified in vitro. Knowing the structure of ZIKV NS5 helps the researchers understand how ZIKV replicates itself. Further, the researchers identified the inhibitor-binding site of NS5, enabling scientists to design potential potent drugs to fight ZIKV.
Researchers have identified more than 100 genes important for memory in people. The study is among the first to identify correlations between gene data and brain activity during memory processing, providing a new window into human memory. It is part of the nascent but growing field of 'imaging genetics,' which aims to relate genetic variation to variation in brain anatomy and function.
When going to the movies with friends, one small action can make a big difference to be on the same page after the movie: eye contact. A simple conversation before the movie sets you up to be more in sync with your friends after the movie. These findings come from an unlikely place -- not the lab, or even a movie theater, but a classroom.
Video games and 'brain training' applications are increasingly touted as an effective treatment for depression. A new study carries it a step further, though, finding that when the video game users were messaged reminders, they played the game more often and in some cases increased the time spent playing.
Star-shaped cells called astrocytes, long considered boring, 'support cells,' are finally coming into their own. To everyone's surprise they even play an important role in the body's master clock, which schedules everything from the release of hormones to the onset of sleepiness.
As little as 10 minutes a day of high-intensity physical activity could help some children reduce their risk of developing heart problems and metabolic diseases such as diabetes, according to an international study.
New research has uncovered that capillaries have the capacity to both sense brain activity and generate an electrical vasodilatory signal to evoke blood flow and direct nutrients to neurons.
Overall, parents believe their teens are safer than other drivers. A new article offers insight into how parents can react when their teen gets licensed.
Certain antidepressants and anti-seizure drugs are among medications that effectively treat diabetic nerve pain, a federal health agency has found.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has granted accelerated approval to the checkpoint inhibitor Bavencio (avelumab) for the treatment of patients with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.
Neurologists are conducting an 18-month clinical trial testing a type of insulin delivered in a nasal spray – which is used to treat diabetes in some patients – in the Study of Nasal Insulin to Fight Forgetfulness (SNIFF).
Most older Americans drink alcohol. Given that this segment of the population is projected to almost double by 2050, reaching 112 million, in the future, there will likely be many more older drinkers in the United States than currently. Importantly, older individuals are more sensitive to alcohol’s effects than their younger counterparts, and are also more likely to take prescription medications that can interact negatively with alcohol, potentially leading to falls and other injuries. This study examined trends in drinking status among U.S. adults 60 years of age and older.
It's time to update the old 'bench-to-bedside' shorthand, researchers across the US declare.
Investigators have reported the discovery of a new gene that is associated with susceptibility to a common form of brain pathology called Tau that accumulates in several different conditions, including Alzheimer's disease, certain forms of dementia and Parkinsonian syndromes as well as chronic traumatic encephalopathy that occurs with repeated head injuries.
Moderate drinking is associated with a lower risk of several, but not all, cardiovascular diseases, finds a large study of UK adults. The finding that moderate drinking is not universally associated with a lower risk of all cardiovascular conditions suggests a more nuanced approach to the role of alcohol in prevention of cardiovascular disease is necessary.
A new study pinpoints a protein that may be essential to Ewing's sarcoma metastasis -- when researchers knocked down the protein KDM3A in Ewing's sarcoma tumor cells, one of a family known as Jumonji proteins, they also inhibited the cancer's metastatic ability.
Neurosurgeons hoping to successfully navigate the rapidly changing healthcare industry must advance their strategies and adapt new ways of thinking in order to continue to thrive in an evolving environment, say authors of a new report.
A prescription weight-loss pill decreases the urge to use opiates such as oxycodone, new research confirms. The researchers found that the drug, lorcaserin, reduced the use and craving for the opioid oxycodone in preclinical studies.
Hyperhidrosis is excessive sweating that is more than what is needed to regulate body temperature. About 7 million Americans suffer from hyperhidrosis, a disorder that often goes undiagnosed. Hyperhidrosis sufferers often feel a loss of control because the sweating happens independently—without a high body temperature or highly charged emotional situation. The condition may make you avoid social situations, especially when they involve shaking hands. Anxiety can make hyperhidrosis worse. The condition can also be triggered by certain foods and drinks, nicotine, caffeine, and some smells.
The development of new treatments for pancreatic cancer is set to be transformed by a network of clinical trials, aiming to find the right trial for the right patient, after a £10 million investment from Cancer Research UK.
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that every year 600,000 deaths are caused by passive smoking worldwide. Now researchers have, for the first time, identified the organic compound acrolein (acrylic aldehyde) as one of the main causes of failure of the immune defense to tumors due to passive smoking.
New research findings suggest that one of the most important risk factors for heart disease and type 2 diabetes, which is excess total and central fat in the body, is present relatively early in survivors of childhood brain tumors. This may program their future risk of these diseases and impact their outcomes.
Inactive teens have weaker bones than those who are physically active, according to a new study.
Researchers have successfully used facial recognition software to diagnose DiGeorge Syndrome, a rare, genetic disease in Africans, Asians and Latin Americans. This is the newest addition to the Atlas of Human Malformations in Diverse Populations launched last year.
A team of scientists has developed a new way to sequence genomes, which can assemble the genome of an organism, entirely from scratch, dramatically cheaper and faster.
After decades of declining US smoking rates overall, most remaining smokers have low income, no college education, no health insurance or a disability. About 15 percent of US adults -- more than 36 million -- continue to smoke cigarettes. Half to three-fourths of them have one or more low-socioeconomic disadvantages, and the lowest socioeconomic categories have the highest smoking rates. The study concludes that continuing tobacco use is now concentrated among the least advantaged portion of society.
One day, patients may be able to monitor their body's response to cancer therapy just by having their blood drawn. A new study has taken an important step in that direction by measuring a panel of cancer proteins in rare, individual tumor cells that float in the blood.
The near-paranoia related to Zika leading up to the 2016 Rio Games could have been avoided by heeding the lessons of previous epidemics, argues a new study.
Scientists have implicated a specific molecule in the self-destruction of axons, the wiring of the nervous system. Understanding just how that damage occurs may help researchers find a way to halt it.
The brain hosts an extraordinarily complex network of interconnected nerve cells that are constantly exchanging electrical and chemical signals at speeds difficult to comprehend. Now, scientists report that they have been able to achieve -- with a custom-built microscope -- the closest view yet of living nerve synapses.
New computational software is hundreds of times faster than conventional tools, opening up new opportunities to understand how individual neurons and networks of neurons function.
How a disease outbreak affects a group of animals depends on the breakdown of ages in the population, research has shown.
Nothing works without proteins in the body; they are the molecular all-rounders in our cells. If they do not work properly, severe diseases, such as Alzheimer's, may result. To develop methods to repair malfunctioning proteins, their structure has to be known. Using a big data approach, researchers have now developed a method to predict protein structures.
A new study indicates that the causes of ALS/MND and schizophrenia are biologically linked. The scientists say that the new findings have major implications for how we classify diseases and that they challenge the existing divide between neurology and psychiatry.
Carbapenems are among the 'antibiotics of last resort' and can fight infections for which other drugs have long lost their effectiveness. However, even carbapenem-resistant pathogenic strains have emerged over the last decades.
Scientists are evaluating the effectiveness of a new nanocoating for dental implants to reduce the risk of peri-implantitis.
The molecular causes of diseases such as Parkinson's need to be understood as a first step towards combating them. Chemists recently succeeded in analyzing what happens when selective mutations of the alpha-synuclein protein occur -- a protein that is closely linked to Parkinson's disease.
The fact that men are overrepresented in psoriasis registers and consume more psoriasis care have long led researchers to believe that the common skin disease disproportionately affects men. A unique study with 5,438 Swedish psoriasis patients now reveals that women have a statistically significant lower incidence of severe psoriasis compared to men.
Through experimental and computational tests, new research expands on the theory of virus surface hydrophobicity. By being slightly water-repellent, the outer layers of proteins in virus capsids affect how it interacts with cells and the environment. Understanding this more can improve vaccine production and virus detection.
Despite having the strongest academic support from parents, teachers, and friends, second-generation Asian-American adolescents benefit much less from these supports than others, finds a study.
Researchers have developed a new algorithm that predicts when a user will leave a mobile game. This information is useful for game studios so that they can design strategies to maintain the player's interest.
Researchers in the United States have developed a computer program that can simultaneously detect cancer and identify where in the body the cancer is located, from a patient's blood sample.
Researchers have found that specific patterns of activity on brain scans may help clinicians identify whether psychotherapy or antidepressant medication is more likely to help individual patients recover from depression.
A new study investigated how epigenetics can modulate human's genetic program -- it can emphasize or silence genes. The new research shows that if epigenetics is disrupted, it might switch on oncogenes (genes that in certain circumstances transform cells into tumor cells) or shut down tumor suppressors. Both events will transform cells into tumor cells and cause cancer.

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