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Irving Gottesman.

Lancet. 2016 Aug 13;388(10045):654

Authors: Snyder A

PMID: 27551696 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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The Lancet in 19th-century America.

Lancet. 2016 Aug 13;388(10045):652-3

Authors: Halperin EC

PMID: 27551695 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Cushing's syndrome.

Lancet. 2016 Aug 13;388(10045):649

Authors: Barnett R

PMID: 27551694 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Refugees need health cards, say German doctors.

Lancet. 2016 Aug 13;388(10045):646-8

Authors: Hyde R

PMID: 27533428 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Health crisis intensifying in Nigeria's Borno State.

Lancet. 2016 Aug 13;388(10045):645

Authors: Burki T

PMID: 27533427 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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The last Summer Olympics? Climate change, health, and work outdoors.

Lancet. 2016 Aug 13;388(10045):642-4

Authors: Smith KR, Woodward A, Lemke B, Otto M, Chang CJ, Mance AA, Balmes J, Kjellstrom T

PMID: 27533426 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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NHS England: preparing for PrEP.

Lancet. 2016 Aug 13;388(10045):634


PMID: 27533425 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Making room for mental health reform.

Lancet. 2016 Aug 13;388(10045):634


PMID: 27533424 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Refugee and migrant crisis: the deficient global response.

Lancet. 2016 Aug 13;388(10045):633


PMID: 27533423 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Safety and durability of effect of contralateral-eye administration of AAV2 gene therapy in patients with childhood-onset blindness caused by RPE65 mutations: a follow-on phase 1 trial.

Lancet. 2016 Aug 13;388(10045):661-72

Authors: Bennett J, Wellman J, Marshall KA, McCague S, Ashtari M, DiStefano-Pappas J, Elci OU, Chung DC, Sun J, Wright JF, Cross DR, Aravand P, Cyckowski LL, Bennicelli JL, Mingozzi F, Auricchio A, Pierce EA, Ruggiero J, Leroy BP, Simonelli F, High KA, Maguire AM

BACKGROUND: Safety and efficacy have been shown in a phase 1 dose-escalation study involving a unilateral subretinal injection of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector containing the RPE65 gene (AAV2-hRPE65v2) in individuals with inherited retinal dystrophy caused by RPE65 mutations. This finding, along with the bilateral nature of the disease and intended use in treatment, prompted us to determine the safety of administration of AAV2-hRPE65v2 to the contralateral eye in patients enrolled in the phase 1 study.
METHODS: In this follow-on phase 1 trial, one dose of AAV2-hRPE65v2 (1.5 × 10(11) vector genomes) in a total volume of 300 μL was subretinally injected into the contralateral, previously uninjected, eyes of 11 children and adults (aged 11-46 years at second administration) with inherited retinal dystrophy caused by RPE65 mutations, 1.71-4.58 years after the initial subretinal injection. We assessed safety, immune response, retinal and visual function, functional vision, and activation of the visual cortex from baseline until 3 year follow-up, with observations ongoing. This study is registered with, number NCT01208389.
FINDINGS: No adverse events related to the AAV were reported, and those related to the procedure were mostly mild (dellen formation in three patients and cataracts in two). One patient developed bacterial endophthalmitis and was excluded from analyses. We noted improvements in efficacy outcomes in most patients without significant immunogenicity. Compared with baseline, pooled analysis of ten participants showed improvements in mean mobility and full-field light sensitivity in the injected eye by day 30 that persisted to year 3 (mobility p=0.0003, white light full-field sensitivity p<0.0001), but no significant change was seen in the previously injected eyes over the same time period (mobility p=0.7398, white light full-field sensitivity p=0.6709). Changes in visual acuity from baseline to year 3 were not significant in pooled analysis in the second eyes or the previously injected eyes (p>0.49 for all time-points compared with baseline).
INTERPRETATION: To our knowledge, AAV2-hRPE65v2 is the first successful gene therapy administered to the contralateral eye. The results highlight the use of several outcome measures and help to delineate the variables that contribute to maximal benefit from gene augmentation therapy in this disease.
FUNDING: Center for Cellular and Molecular Therapeutics at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Spark Therapeutics, US National Institutes of Health, Foundation Fighting Blindness, Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, Research to Prevent Blindness, Center for Advanced Retinal and Ocular Therapeutics, Mackall Foundation Trust, F M Kirby Foundation, and The Research Foundation-Flanders.

PMID: 27375040 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Immediate total-body CT scanning versus conventional imaging and selective CT scanning in patients with severe trauma (REACT-2): a randomised controlled trial.

Lancet. 2016 Aug 13;388(10045):673-83

Authors: Sierink JC, Treskes K, Edwards MJ, Beuker BJ, den Hartog D, Hohmann J, Dijkgraaf MG, Luitse JS, Beenen LF, Hollmann MW, Goslings JC, REACT-2 study group

BACKGROUND: Published work suggests a survival benefit for patients with trauma who undergo total-body CT scanning during the initial trauma assessment; however, level 1 evidence is absent. We aimed to assess the effect of total-body CT scanning compared with the standard work-up on in-hospital mortality in patients with trauma.
METHODS: We undertook an international, multicentre, randomised controlled trial at four hospitals in the Netherlands and one in Switzerland. Patients aged 18 years or older with trauma with compromised vital parameters, clinical suspicion of life-threatening injuries, or severe injury were randomly assigned (1:1) by ALEA randomisation to immediate total-body CT scanning or to a standard work-up with conventional imaging supplemented with selective CT scanning. Neither doctors nor patients were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality, analysed in the intention-to-treat population and in subgroups of patients with polytrauma and those with traumatic brain injury. The χ(2) test was used to assess differences in mortality. This trial is registered with, number NCT01523626.
FINDINGS: Between April 22, 2011, and Jan 1, 2014, 5475 patients were assessed for eligibility, 1403 of whom were randomly assigned: 702 to immediate total-body CT scanning and 701 to the standard work-up. 541 patients in the immediate total-body CT scanning group and 542 in the standard work-up group were included in the primary analysis. In-hospital mortality did not differ between groups (total-body CT 86 [16%] of 541 vs standard work-up 85 [16%] of 542; p=0.92). In-hospital mortality also did not differ between groups in subgroup analyses in patients with polytrauma (total-body CT 81 [22%] of 362 vs standard work-up 82 [25%] of 331; p=0.46) and traumatic brain injury (68 [38%] of 178 vs 66 [44%] of 151; p=0.31). Three serious adverse events were reported in patients in the total-body CT group (1%), one in the standard work-up group (<1%), and one in a patient who was excluded after random allocation. All five patients died.
INTERPRETATION: Diagnosing patients with an immediate total-body CT scan does not reduce in-hospital mortality compared with the standard radiological work-up. Because of the increased radiation dose, future research should focus on the selection of patients who will benefit from immediate total-body CT.
FUNDING: ZonMw, the Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development.

PMID: 27371185 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Economic downturns, universal health coverage, and cancer mortality in high-income and middle-income countries, 1990-2010: a longitudinal analysis.

Lancet. 2016 Aug 13;388(10045):684-95

Authors: Maruthappu M, Watkins J, Noor AM, Williams C, Ali R, Sullivan R, Zeltner T, Atun R

BACKGROUND: The global economic crisis has been associated with increased unemployment and reduced public-sector expenditure on health care (PEH). We estimated the effects of changes in unemployment and PEH on cancer mortality, and identified how universal health coverage (UHC) affected these relationships.
METHODS: For this longitudinal analysis, we obtained data from the World Bank and WHO (1990-2010). We aggregated mortality data for breast cancer in women, prostate cancer in men, and colorectal cancers in men and women, which are associated with survival rates that exceed 50%, into a treatable cancer class. We likewise aggregated data for lung and pancreatic cancers, which have 5 year survival rates of less than 10%, into an untreatable cancer class. We used multivariable regression analysis, controlling for country-specific demographics and infrastructure, with time-lag analyses and robustness checks to investigate the relationship between unemployment, PEH, and cancer mortality, with and without UHC. We used trend analysis to project mortality rates, on the basis of trends before the sharp unemployment rise that occurred in many countries from 2008 to 2010, and compared them with observed rates.
RESULTS: Data were available for 75 countries, representing 2.106 billion people, for the unemployment analysis and for 79 countries, representing 2.156 billion people, for the PEH analysis. Unemployment rises were significantly associated with an increase in all-cancer mortality and all specific cancers except lung cancer in women. By contrast, untreatable cancer mortality was not significantly linked with changes in unemployment. Lag analyses showed significant associations remained 5 years after unemployment increases for the treatable cancer class. Rerunning analyses, while accounting for UHC status, removed the significant associations. All-cancer, treatable cancer, and specific cancer mortalities significantly decreased as PEH increased. Time-series analysis provided an estimate of more than 40,000 excess deaths due to a subset of treatable cancers from 2008 to 2010, on the basis of 2000-07 trends. Most of these deaths were in non-UHC countries.
INTERPRETATION: Unemployment increases are associated with rises in cancer mortality; UHC seems to protect against this effect. PEH increases are associated with reduced cancer mortality. Access to health care could underlie these associations. We estimate that the 2008-10 economic crisis was associated with about 260,000 excess cancer-related deaths in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development alone.

PMID: 27236345 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Association between air pollution and coronary artery calcification within six metropolitan areas in the USA (the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution): a longitudinal cohort study.

Lancet. 2016 Aug 13;388(10045):696-704

Authors: Kaufman JD, Adar SD, Barr RG, Budoff M, Burke GL, Curl CL, Daviglus ML, Diez Roux AV, Gassett AJ, Jacobs DR, Kronmal R, Larson TV, Navas-Acien A, Olives C, Sampson PD, Sheppard L, Siscovick DS, Stein JH, Szpiro AA, Watson KE

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) and traffic-related air pollutant concentrations are associated with cardiovascular risk. The disease process underlying these associations remains uncertain. We aim to assess association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and progression of coronary artery calcium and common carotid artery intima-media thickness.
METHODS: In this prospective 10-year cohort study, we repeatedly measured coronary artery calcium by CT in 6795 participants aged 45-84 years enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air) in six metropolitan areas in the USA. Repeated scans were done for nearly all participants between 2002 and 2005, for a subset of participants between 2005 and 2007, and for half of all participants between 2010 and 2012. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness was measured by ultrasound in all participants at baseline and in 2010-12 for 3459 participants. Residence-specific spatio-temporal pollution concentration models, incorporating community-specific measurements, agency monitoring data, and geographical predictors, estimated concentrations of PM2.5 and nitrogen oxides (NOX) between 1999 and 2012. The primary aim was to examine the association between both progression of coronary artery calcium and mean carotid artery intima-media thickness and long-term exposure to ambient air pollutant concentrations (PM2.5, NOX, and black carbon) between examinations and within the six metropolitan areas, adjusting for baseline age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, site, and CT scanner technology.
FINDINGS: In this population, coronary calcium increased on average by 24 Agatston units per year (SD 58), and intima-media thickness by 12 μm per year (10), before adjusting for risk factors or air pollutant exposures. Participant-specific pollutant concentrations averaged over the years 2000-10 ranged from 9.2-22.6 μg PM2.5/m(3) and 7.2-139.2 parts per billion (ppb) NOX. For each 5 μg PM2.5/m(3) increase, coronary calcium progressed by 4.1 Agatston units per year (95% CI 1.4-6.8) and for each 40 ppb NOX coronary calcium progressed by 4.8 Agatston units per year (0.9-8.7). Pollutant exposures were not associated with intima-media thickness change. The estimate for the effect of a 5 μg/m(3) higher long-term exposure to PM2.5 in intima-media thickness was -0.9 μm per year (95% CI -3.0 to 1.3). For 40 ppb higher NOX, the estimate was 0.2 μm per year (-1.9 to 2.4).
INTERPRETATION: Increased concentrations of PM2.5 and traffic-related air pollution within metropolitan areas, in ranges commonly encountered worldwide, are associated with progression in coronary calcification, consistent with acceleration of atherosclerosis. This study supports the case for global efforts of pollution reduction in prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
FUNDING: US Environmental Protection Agency and US National Institutes of Health.

PMID: 27233746 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Use of serological surveys to generate key insights into the changing global landscape of infectious disease.

Lancet. 2016 Aug 13;388(10045):728-30

Authors: Metcalf CJ, Farrar J, Cutts FT, Basta NE, Graham AL, Lessler J, Ferguson NM, Burke DS, Grenfell BT

PMID: 27059886 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Related Articles


Lancet. 2016 Aug 13;388(10045):706-16

Authors: Powell LW, Seckington RC, Deugnier Y

Haemochromatosis is now known to be an iron-storage disease with genetic heterogeneity but with a final common metabolic pathway resulting in inappropriately low production of the hormone hepcidin. This leads to increase in intestinal absorption and deposition of excessive amounts of iron in parenchymal cells which in turn results in eventual tissue damage and organ failure. A clinical enigma has been the variable clinical expression with some patients presenting with hepatic cirrhosis at a young age and others almost asymptomatic for life. Research is unravelling this puzzle by identifying environmental factors-especially alcohol consumption-and associated modifying genes that modulate phenotypic expression. A high index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis but this can lead to presymptomatic therapy and a normal life expectancy. Venesection (phlebotomy) therapy remains the mainstay of therapy, but alternative therapies are the subject of current research.

PMID: 26975792 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Guillain-Barré syndrome.

Lancet. 2016 Aug 13;388(10045):717-27

Authors: Willison HJ, Jacobs BC, van Doorn PA

Guillain-Barré syndrome is the most common and most severe acute paralytic neuropathy, with about 100,000 people developing the disorder every year worldwide. Under the umbrella term of Guillain-Barré syndrome are several recognisable variants with distinct clinical and pathological features. The severe, generalised manifestation of Guillain-Barré syndrome with respiratory failure affects 20-30% of cases. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange is the optimal management approach, alongside supportive care. Understanding of the infectious triggers and immunological and pathological mechanisms has advanced substantially in the past 10 years, and is guiding clinical trials investigating new treatments. Investigators of large, worldwide, collaborative studies of the spectrum of Guillain-Barré syndrome are accruing data for clinical and biological databases to inform the development of outcome predictors and disease biomarkers. Such studies are transforming the clinical and scientific landscape of acute autoimmune neuropathies.

PMID: 26948435 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Morgagni's hernia in a hypoxaemic adult.

Lancet. 2016 Aug 13;388(10045):705

Authors: Humble AG, Sample CB

PMID: 26831471 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Related Articles

Our findings differ.

CMAJ. 2015 Oct 20;187(15):1162

Authors: Famularo G, Gasbarrone L, Minisola G

PMID: 26483040 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

One expert has focused her academic career on the effects and outcomes of children adopted by same-sex couples. It is believed hers is the first study that has followed children adopted by lesbian, gay and heterosexual parents from early to middle childhood.
Visual hallucinations ... everyone has heard of them, and many people have experienced the sensation of "seeing" something that isn't there. But studying the phenomenon of hallucinations is difficult: they are irregular, transitory, and highly personal -- only the person experiencing the hallucination knows what he or she is seeing, and representations of what's being seen are limited to verbal descriptions or drawings.
The risk of developing a psychotic disorder such as schizophrenia is highest for young people, men, ethnic minorities and people living in urban areas and poorer neighborhoods, an English study concludes.
A molecular motor that controls the release of inflammatory factors that cause severe and fatal allergic reactions has now been identified by researchers. The study suggests that targeting this motor may be a new way to treat patients undergoing anaphylactic shock.
With 40 percent of opioid medications in Michigan prescribed by surgeons, a team has launched an effort to encourage safer prescribing across the state, and a map of drug takeback locations.
One of the earliest widespread applications of precision medicine in cancer care is helping patients and physicians decide whether chemotherapy is needed, a new study finds.
More and more medical centers are relying on hospitalists -- hospital-based internal medicine specialists who coordinate the complex care of inpatients. Now, an 18-month study comparing two hospitalist groups -- one with a high physician assistant (PA)-to-physician ratio ("expanded PA") and one with a low PA-to-physician ratio ("conventional") -- has found no significant differences in key clinical outcomes achieved by both groups.
It’s been long thought that when blood transfusions are needed, it may be best to use the freshest blood, but researchers have led a large international study proving that it is not so.
Oxygen in the air is well known to cause damaging rust on cars through a process known as oxidation. Similarly, a research group has now identified that certain cells during embryonic development also are negatively affected by oxidation. This oxidation is capable of leading to a block in cellular function.
A recent study measured how much artificial sweetener is absorbed into the blood stream by children and adults after drinking a can of diet soda.
One of the challenges to understanding the concerns behind vaccine hesitancy is that very seldom are people with worries about vaccines and vaccine advocates brought together in the same space, especially online. In January 2016, however, Facebook co-founder Mark Zuckerberg posted a photo of himself holding his baby with the caption "Doctor's visit -- time for vaccines!" With his undeniable reach, the post represented a unique opportunity to analyze the language used to express pro- vaccination and anti-vaccination viewpoints and understand how people on both sides of the debate perceive the risks of vaccination.
Researchers have discovered a new option for treating malignant pleural mesothelioma. For the first time in the world, they were able to show in a preclinical study, both in the cell culture and in the animal model, that trabectedin, a chemotherapy drug that is already successfully used for other types of cancer, is also effective against malignant pleural mesothelioma. The active agent originally occurs in the Caribbean sea cucumber, a marine-dwelling tunicate.
A new report compares health attitudes across 21 European countries. Findings show that women are more likely to suffer from depression and headaches, and men are much more likely to smoke and view themselves as overweight. The UK and Portugal display highest binge drinking rates, and across Europe, men consume almost twice as much alcohol as women.
Surprisingly, new research shows that patients’ physical activity does not increase following hip replacement surgery.
A team of scientists has discovered that rare neurological syndromes for which there was no cause can be the result of variations in the gene ATAD3A. The study sheds light on the causes of these diseases and opens the possibility for developing better diagnostic tools and potential treatments in the future.
Taking a pill that prevents the accumulation of toxic molecules in the brain might someday help prevent or delay Alzheimer's disease, according to scientists.
Have you heard of the CNN effect? There is also a “fake ID effect:” This is when a fake piece of identification facilitates later harms. Researchers already know that underage college students who obtain and use false identification are at risk for negative outcomes. This study investigated the strength of the fake ID effect to determine whether having a fake ID is a signal of being at risk or it actually increases the likelihood that a student will suffer alcohol-related problems.
Biology, at the nitty-gritty level of motor proteins, DNA, and microtubules, takes its cue from physics. But while much is known about the biological components that form such cellular stuctures, researchers are only beginning to explore the physical forces between those components.
Scientists have discovered a fundamental new mechanism explaining the inadequate immune defense against chronic viral infection. These results may open up new avenues for vaccine development, say researchers.
As the countdown continues to the Presidential election, new analytical tools promise a quicker and remarkably accurate method of predicting election trends with Twitter.
At the second annual International Society of Neurogastronomy Symposium, scientists, doctors, chefs and food scientists discuss flavor perception and quality of life for people who can't enjoy food because of their injury or illness.
New research reveals the importance of both the amount and timing of physical activity in reducing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D), as well as aiding the management of the disease in existing T2D patients.
For the first time, scientists have revealed the mechanics of how bacteria build up slimy masses, called biofilms, cell by cell. When encased in biofilms in the human body, bacteria are a thousand times less susceptible to antibiotics, making certain infections, such as pneumonia, difficult to treat and potentially lethal. In a new study, engineers and biologists tracked a single bacterial cell as it grew into a mature biofilm of 10,000 cells with an ordered architecture. The findings should help scientists learn more about bacterial behavior and open up new ways of attacking biofilms with drugs.
Concussion guidelines published over the past decade -- and laws in all states -- now discourage youth athletes from returning to play if they display any signs of concussion after an injury. However, new research confirms athletes often head back into the game on the same day.
In findings that will not surprise the parents of any school-aged child, new research finds that the more time children spend using digital devices, the less likely they are to finish their homework.
There is a growing body of evidence that pediatric emergency departments are seeing a steady increase in the number of children presenting with headaches.
It's known that adverse childhood experiences carry over into adult life, but a new study is focusing on the effect of these experiences in the childhood years.
Most U.S. adults surveyed in 2015 agree that e-cigarette use should not be allowed in places where smoking is prohibited. Yet one-third of respondents allow use of the devices within their home, and fewer than half said they knew that exhaled e-cigarette vapors contain nicotine that deposits on indoor surfaces.
What parents share with others about their children in today's digital age presents new and often unanticipated risks.
New research finds that lice can be the end of a happy summer for many kids at sleepaway camp.
A study at a Pennsylvania trauma center found competitive youth motocross athletes suffer potentially life-threatening injuries despite wearing helmets and other safety gear required on the sport's popular rough-terrain race courses.
Researchers have discovered a potential way to create an antimicrobial drug that would stop one of the world’s most prevalent foodborne bugs causing gastroenteritis in humans.
A newly discovered compound has been shown by researchers to block a protein that is essential for the sustained growth of up to a quarter of all cancers.
The first evidence linking a disturbance of the most common protein in the body with a poor outcome in pancreatic cancer has been uncovered by a team of researchers.
Prescribing a medication plan for a patient with Parkinson’s disease is a big challenge for doctors, but now a biomedical engineering professor and his students are making great strides in solving that problem with their groundbreaking research.
How society treats overweight people makes health matters worse, a new study has found. Among the findings, authors note that people who experience weight discrimination often shun social interaction and skip doctor visits.
A new study shows that even low physical fitness, up to 20% below the average for healthy people, is sufficient to produce a preventive effect on most of the risk factors that affect people with cardiovascular disease.
Nanoparticle drugs can make it easier for medications to reach their targets, say researchers. The researchers have developed a polymeric 'scaffold' that helps drugs that often have trouble entering the bloodstream, such as anti-cancer agents, form highly stable nanoparticles with improved bioavailability.
People with diabetes are at increased risk of developing serious eye diseases, yet most do not have sight-saving annual eye exams, according to a large study.
New AAP guidelines say parents not only need to pay attention to the amount of time children spend on digital media -- but also how, when and where they use it.
In type 1 diabetes, the body attacks its own insulin-producing cells. Scientists have now reported on a mechanism used by the immune system to prepare for this attack. They were able to inhibit this process through targeted intervention and are now hoping this will lead to new possibilities for treatment.
There are many disadvantages to using human cells in the initial stages of creating a new therapy. Scientists often have to test a large number of compounds in order to find one that is effective against a particular target. Human cells are costly to take care of and require a lot of time and specific conditions in order to grow. Now researchers say that fission yeast may be used to find the next cancer cure.
Unlike drugs, active implants such as electroceuticals act locally, have fewer side effects and function directly through electrical signals, much like the body itself. Now researchers present a new technology platform that can power active implants wirelessly via ultrasound. The experts are targeting widespread diseases such as high blood pressure, diabetes and Parkinson’s.
What students in school learn from a model experiment depends on how similar the model substances look to the originals, a new study has found.
New research aims to improve the administration and availability of drug therapies to HIV patients through the use of nanotechnology.
In a discovery that advances the understanding of how marijuana works in the human body, an international group of scientists has, for the first time, created a three-dimensional atomic-level image of the molecular structure activated by tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active chemical in marijuana.
Tuberculosis (TB) tricks the immune system into attacking the body’s lung tissue so the bacteria are allowed to spread to other people, new research. The concept proposes that current ideas about how tuberculosis develops in patients may be incomplete and that, in fact, infection causes autoimmunity, where the immune system reacts incorrectly to its own tissue.
Swiss doctors report that cartilage cells harvested from patients’ own noses have been used to successfully produce cartilage transplants for the treatment of the knees of 10 adults (aged 18-55 years) whose cartilage was damaged by injury. Two years after reconstruction, most recipients reported improvements in pain, knee function, and quality of life, as well as developing repair tissue that is similar in composition to native cartilage.
The U.S. CDC is recommending that 11- to 12-year-olds receive two doses of HPV vaccine at least six months apart rather than the previously recommended three doses to protect against cancers caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infections.
Teens use smartphones successfully to do almost anything: learn new skills, communicate with friends, do research and catch Pokémon. But a new study finds smartphones aren't as useful for helping teens maintain weight loss.
A new genetic testing method called LipidSeq can identify a genetic basis for high-cholesterol in almost 70 per cent of a targeted patient population. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, researchers were able to pinpoint specific areas of a person's DNA to more effectively diagnose genetic forms of high-cholesterol, which markedly increase risk for heart attack and stroke.
Can being uncertain of your social rank be bad for your health? New research suggests that low social rank isn’t as bad for your health as uncertain social rank.
Scientists reveal how toxic peptides that arise due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia target the integrity of membrane-less organelles and trigger disease.
Co-D Therapeutics, a University of Wisconsin-Madison spinoff, is developing a three-drug cocktail to battle a wide range of cancers. The first target for Co-D is angiosarcoma, a rare and lethal cancer that arises from blood vessels.
A chemical inhibitor that limits the growth of lung tumor cells has been identified by a team of researchers. The inhibitor works by partially disrupting glycosylation, the addition of sugar chains to proteins.
In a recent study, researchers have demonstrated that the tumors release substances called cytokines to attract macrophages.
Most patients don’t think an orthopedic surgeon is overpaid but they greatly exaggerate how much a surgeon is reimbursed by Medicare for performing knee surgery, according to a study of patient perceptions.
As one of the states with the least restrictive vaccine exemption laws in the country, Texas should make the process of obtaining nonmedical exemptions more rigorous to avoid the public health risks and costs associated with preventable diseases, according to a new brief by science policy experts.
Humans may be able to respond better to exercise during the daytime, suggests new research. Oxygen and the internal clock "do a dance together" in muscle cells to make energy, they say. The discovery provides insights that could lead to optimizing muscle function.
A crucial factor in the spread of cancer has been discovered by a team of researchers that has demonstrated that the metabolism of macrophages, a particular type of white blood cell, can be attuned to prevent the spread of cancer. The key is in making these macrophages more prone to ‘steal’ sugar from the cells forming the tumor’s blood vessels. As a result, these blood vessels will be structured more tightly, which can prevent cancer cells from spreading to other organs.

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