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PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

A world-first systematic review into the safety of ketamine as a treatment for depression shows the risks of long-term ketamine treatment remain unclear.
Genes that regulate a cellular recycling system called autophagy are commonly mutated in Crohn's disease patients, though the link between biological housekeeping and inflammatory bowel disease remained a mystery.
Using the latest techniques, MRI can provide a 'one-stop-shop' method for evaluation of potential living liver donors, according to an article.
The smile may be the most common and flexible expression, used to reveal some emotions, cover others and manage social interactions that have kept communities secure and organized for millennia. But how do we tell one kind of smile from another?
A human-made cousin of a small molecule found in olive oil can disrupt the hunger-signaling pathway, new research suggest.
In one of the largest efforts to build a comprehensive catalog of genetic vulnerabilities in cancer, researchers have identified more than 760 genes upon which cancer cells from multiple types are strongly dependent for their growth and survival. While many of these dependencies are specific to certain cancer types, about 10 percent are common across multiple cancers, suggesting that a relatively small number of therapies may combat multiple cancer types. Mutations accounted for only a small percentage of dependencies.
Two gut pathogens commonly found in malnourished children combine to worsen malnutrition and impair growth in laboratory mice, according to new research.
Skin transplant surgery has long-term benefit for restoring skin pigmentation caused by the skin disease vitiligo, new research shows. In a retrospective study, researchers found that a majority of areas of the skin treated with surgery still had 'very good to excellent' color match pigmentation five years later.
A cluster of nerve cells in the male mouse's brain have been identified that, when activated, triggers territorial rage in a variety of situations. Activating the same cluster has no such effect on female mice.
Important processes that create mutations that cause cancer have been identified by researchers studying the genomes of more than 1,000 tumors. Many mutations in human cancers are caused by mistakes made by a repair mechanism or 'DNA spellchecker' rather than the actual damage to DNA caused by the environment. Sunlight and alcohol consumption increase the rate at which this happens, resulting in more mutations in the most important parts of our genomes, add the investigators.
From the moment of fertilization, building a human body involves a series of choices where cells generated by cell division must elect which of the myriad types of cell they will become. How does this decision occur? New research suggests that fate decision is not a unique programmed event, as was believed, but the outcome of a very dynamic process.
Scientists can now explore in a laboratory dish how the human brain develops by creating organoids -- distinct, three-dimensional regions of the brain. Scientists coaxed early stage stem cells to create and fuse two types of organoids from different brain regions to show how the developing brain maintains proper balance of excitatory and inhibitory neurons.
Hunting and slaughtering wild animals in Western and Central Africa can put humans at risk of contracting zoonotic infections, including Ebola virus and Lassa virus. While previous studies have suggested that this risky hunting behavior is mostly limited to adult males, a new study finds that women and children also participate.
Researchers investigating why some people suffer from motor disabilities report they may have dialed back evolution's clock a few ticks by blocking molecular pruning of sophisticated brain-to-limb nerve connections in maturing mice.
An important discovery establishes a cause of metastasis in pancreatic cancer. Using organoids grown from patient tissues and transplanted in mouse models of the illness, the team pinpoints an epigenetic re-programming of gene enhancers that returns cancerous cells to a more primitive developmental state, dating back to the formation of the pancreas, in which cells multiply rapidly and are not yet anchored in tissue.
Stretched out, the DNA from all the cells in our body would reach Pluto. So how does each tiny cell pack a two-meter length of DNA into its nucleus, which is just one-thousandth of a millimeter across? The answer to this daunting biological riddle is central to understanding how the three-dimensional organization of DNA in the nucleus influences our biology, from how our genome orchestrates our cellular activity to how genes are passed from parents to children.
A super-strong 'tough adhesive' has been created that is non-toxic and binds to biological tissues with a strength comparable to the body's own resilient cartilage, even when they're wet. Inspired by the glue produced by a slug, the double-layered hydrogel material demonstrates both high adhesion strength and strain dissipation, making it useful in a variety of medical applications.
For decades, researches have been investigating the underlying foundations of Alzheimer's disease to provide clues for the design of a successful therapy. Breakthrough insights reveal the molecular basis of the hereditary form of Alzheimer's disease that strikes early in life.
For the first time, researchers reveal components of a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) named rhodopsin bound to a signaling molecule called arrestin, both crucial pieces of the body's intricate cellular communication network. The new discovery further refines a landmark 2015 Nature article that first described the structure of the two molecules in complex together.
Using a non-LCD screen for computer tasks may decrease the risk of exacerbating symptoms in sufferers of post-concussion syndrome (PCS), suggests a new pilot project.
Using the gene editing technology CRISPR, scientists have shed light on a rare, sometimes fatal syndrome that causes children to gradually lose the ability to manufacture vital blood cells. The research suggests new lines of investigation into how to treat this condition — dyskeratosis congenita — which is characterized by shortened telomeres. Short telomeres lead to progressive DNA damage that accumulates over time.
A type of bacterium is associated with the recurrence of colorectal cancer and poor outcomes, research show. Scientists found that Fusobacterium nucleatum in the gut can stop chemotherapy from causing a type of cancer cell death called apoptosis.
The number of people with obstructive sleep apnea has steadily increased over the past two decades. Obesity and advanced age, which have been reported as risk factors, are also on the rise. Scientists are concerned because sleep apnea may diminish healthspan by aggravating several cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a rapidly progressive disease that causes whole-body muscle weakness and atrophy due to deficiency in a protein called dystrophin. Researchers have developed a new gene transfer approach that uses an adeno-associated virus vector to deliver a modified dystrophin gene to muscle, restoring muscle strength in a mouse model that closely mimics the severe defects seen in patients.
Genome-wide association studies have implicated a common genetic variant in chromosome 6p24 in coronary artery disease, as well as four other vascular diseases: migraine headache, cervical artery dissection, fibromuscular dysplasia, and hypertension. However, it has not been clear how this polymorphism affects the risk for so many diseases. Researchers show how this DNA variant enhances the activity of a gene called endothelin-1, which is known to promote vasoconstriction and hardening of the arteries.
Computer simulations of electrical charges sent to retinal implants based on fractal geometry have researchers moving forward with their eyes focused on biological testing.
Social dominance, and the dynamic it creates, may be so naturally ingrained, researchers say, that toddlers as young as 17 months old not only can perceive who is dominant, but also anticipate that the dominant person will receive more rewards.
Behind the chubby cheeks and bright eyes of babies as young as 8 months lies the smoothly whirring mind of a social statistician, logging our every move and making odds on what a person is most likely to do next, suggests new research.
Findings of the latest study of the Joslin 50-Year Medalists, who have had type 1 diabetes for at least 50 years, re-emphasize the importance of good blood glucose control and exercise in reducing complications and mortality rates for these older individuals.
Surgeons were able to identify and remove a greater number of cancerous nodules from lung cancer patients when combining intraoperative molecular imaging (IMI) -- through the use of a contrast agent that makes tumor cells glow during surgery -- with preoperative positron emission tomograph y (PET) scans. This study shows how effective the combination of IMI with the tumor-glowing agent can be when combined with traditional PET imaging.
Do very-preterm or very-low-weight babies develop anxiety and mood disorders later in life? Researchers have concluded a study to answer this question.
Although there was an increase in the percentage of US youth ages 12 to 19 reporting exposure to loud music through headphones from 1988-2010, researchers did not find significant changes in the prevalence of hearing loss among this group, according to a study.
A neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) significantly reduced the number of cases of late-onset sepsis, a leading cause of death among pre-term infants, by implementing guidelines designed to eliminate overuse of antibiotics, according to new research. The antibiotic stewardship guidelines reduced variability in treating common infections, improving clinical adherence to best practices.
A new study examines how retailers can benefit by showing ads from competing companies on their websites.
Using an array of modern biochemical and structural biology techniques, researchers have begun to unravel the mystery of how acidity influences a small protein called serum amyloid A. The findings may help design new treatments for the life-threatening human disorder called secondary systemic amyloidosis.
Malaria was already widespread on Sardinia by the Roman period, long before the Middle Ages, as research on a Roman who died 2,000 years ago indicates.
Young people who have tried an e-cigarette may be more likely to go on to smoke cigarettes compared with those who have not, a new study has suggested.
The European Food Safety Authority, the European Medicines Agency and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control are concerned about the impact of use of antibiotics on the increase in antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The report presents new data on antibiotic consumption and antibiotic resistance and reflects improved surveillance across Europe.
New research has identified the best way to treat a sting from the lions mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata).
Researchers have identified a new cell mechanism that could lead to a fundamental change in the diagnosis and treatment of leukemia.
Children growing up in societies that experience high levels of gender inequality -- irrespective of whether these are developed or developing countries -- are more likely to be maltreated. This is according to a cross-national analysis of data from 57 countries worldwide.
Osteoarthritis patients that are more confident in their abilities in the morning go on to be more physically active throughout the day, according to a team of researchers.
New research shows the impact of acute kidney injury requiring dialysis on patients receiving non-renal solid organ transplantation.
Hepatitis E gets little press compared to its better-known cousins A, B and C, but Stellenbosch University virologists say we should wake up to how transmission of this virus is changing.
The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. The reality is that light scattering is the major obstacle for deep penetration into tissue.
The way estrogen therapy for menopause is delivered doesn't affect risk or benefit, new research shows. What DOES make a difference with the commonly used conjugated equine estrogen, plus progestogen, is dosage.
Contrary to public perception and many media accounts, women and men report similar levels of work-family conflicts, both in the form of work interfering with family and family interfering with work, according to research.
After close to 5 years of work, the GenomeDenmark consortium has now finalized the efforts to establish a Danish Reference genome. The result is a reference of unrivalled quality and information depth, as compared to other similar international references and studies. Due to the unique and high quality approach, the consortium has been able to analyze otherwise intractable genomics regions for the first time.
A new study by a 2016 Olympian and a USA Track & Field consultant finds the stride length people naturally choose is the best for them, whether they are experienced or inexperienced runners. That means whatever shape you are in -- marathon warrior or weekend jogger -- stick with what you're doing.
Researchers have found a surprisingly versatile workaround to create chemical compounds that could prove useful for medical imaging and drug development.
In the United States, the smoking cessation rate increased for the first time in 15 years, found a population-level analysis of national surveys conducted from 2001 to 2015. The study suggests e-cigarettes helped users of the electronic devices to quit smoking traditional cigarettes.
A stem cell-based method can selectively target and kill cancerous tissue while preventing some of the toxic side effects of chemotherapy by treating the disease in a more localized way, report investigators.
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has helped to close the gap in health care access between residents of poor and higher-income households, a new report shows.
Two rare diseases caused by a malfunctioning gene that triggers seizures or involuntary movements in children as early as a few days old have left scientists searching for answers and better treatment options. Researchers are closer to understanding the source, a gene known as GNAO1 and the transformations it can take on, and potentially stopping its devastating effects by uncovering key differences in the way it functions.
A new method may help determine whether a person has Alzheimer's disease or frontotemporal dementia, two different types of dementia that often have similar symptoms, according to a preliminary study.
Marked improvements have been made over the past few decades in managing cystic fibrosis, but as more adults are diagnosed with the disease radiologists can do more to monitor the wide spectrum of CF in adults, including nonclassic imaging findings, according to an article.
Exosuits can be used to improve walking after stroke, say researchers. This is a critical step in de-risking exosuit technology towards real-world clinical use.
Analysis of strontium isotopes in teeth from Neolithic cattle suggest that early Europeans used different specialized herding strategies.
3.6 out of 1,000 children in the US are diagnosed with cerebral palsy. Their symptoms can include abnormal gait patterns such as crouch gait, characterized by excessive flexion of the hips, knees, or ankles. A pilot study demonstrates a robotic training method that improves posture and walking in children with crouch gait by enhancing their muscle strength and coordination.
Scientists have found that stem cells in the brain's hypothalamus govern how fast aging occurs in the body. The finding, made in mice, could lead to new strategies for warding off age-related diseases and extending lifespan.

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