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A new study on two specially bred strains of mice has illuminated how abnormal addition of the chemical phosphate to a specific heart muscle protein may sabotage the way the protein behaves in a cell, and may damage the way the heart pumps blood around the body.
Researchers have shown that genetic diversity plays a key role in enabling drug resistance to evolve. Scientists show that high genetic diversity can prime new mutations that cause drug resistance. The study has implications for our understanding of the evolution of resistance to antimicrobial and anticancer drugs.
MRI-based measurements of the functional connections in the brain can help predict long-term recovery in patients who suffer neurological disability after cardiac arrest, according to new research.
Clean drinking water can be easy to take for granted if your home taps into treated water sources. But more than 44 million people in the U.S. get their water from private domestic wells, which are largely unregulated. Of those, a new report estimates that about 2 million people could be exposed to high levels of naturally occurring arsenic in their water.
The gentle touch of another individual soothes the effects of social exclusion, one of the most emotionally painful human experiences, according to new research.
A new way to predict the energy a person expends walking will help predict and monitor the physiological status of walkers, including foot soldiers. Researchers have developed the Army-funded method, which significantly improves on two existing standards, and relies on three readily available variables. Accurate prediction is important because the rate at which people burn calories walking can vary tenfold depending on speed, carried load and whether uphill, at-grade or downhill.
A machine learning tool can help identify which high-risk breast lesions are likely to become cancerous, according to a new study. Researchers said the technology has the potential to reduce unnecessary surgeries.
Imagine Google Earth with only the street view and a far-away satellite view but not much of a map view. Brain imaging, for the most part, has been missing just that, and a lot of research on how the brain computes happens on that map-like level. New imaging tackles this special view of the brain with the highest-energy X-rays in the country that illuminate thick sections of a mouse brain.
A research team has discovered how scalding heat and tissue injury activate an ancient 'pain' receptor in simple animals. The findings, from a study of flatworms, could lead to new strategies for analgesic drug design for the treatment of humans. That planarian flatworms use the same molecular receptor as flies, mice and humans to detect potentially damaging or noxious stimuli from the environment shows a remarkable level of evolutionary conservation, the researchers say.
For the first time, a strong link has been established between high blood pressure and the most common heart valve disorder in high-income countries.
Scientists have for the first time shown that a novel compound effectively suppresses production of the virus in chronically infected cells.
From doctors to engineers to carpet layers to massage therapists, more than one in three Americans is required to hold a license to work in their occupation. Broad consensus among researchers holds that licensure creates wage premiums by establishing economic monopolies, but according to research, licensure does not limit competition nor does it increase wages.
Using eye-tracking technology, cognitive scientists have obtained the first direct evidence that people use a process called counterfactual simulation to imagine how a situation could have played out differently to assign responsibility for an outcome.
The concept of 'collective intelligence' is simple -- it asserts that if a team performs well on one task, it will repeat that success on other projects, regardless of the scope or focus of the work. While it sounds good in theory, it doesn't work that way in reality, according to a researcher.
Engineers have developed a flexible sensor 'skin' that can be stretched over any part of a robot's body or prosthetic to accurately convey information about shear forces and vibration, which are critical to tasks ranging from cooking an egg to dismantling a bomb.
Researchers have identified an enzyme that supports the survival and dissemination of metastatic cells, and developed a synthetic compound that targets the enzyme and kills the metastatic cells in mice with cancer.
A recent critical assessment of software tools represents a key step toward taming the 'Wild West' nature of the burgeoning field of metagenomics.
One of the two brain-training methods most scientists use in research is significantly better in improving memory and attention. It also results in more significant changes in brain activity.
One of the largest and best-documented trials of children receiving early antiretroviral therapy -- the CHER clinical trial in South Africa -- finds ongoing white matter damage in HIV-positive children at the age of 7 years. The study aims to contribute to a better understanding of brain development in HIV-infected and exposed children, as well as the impact of long-term antiretroviral treatment.
A team of researchers used stem cell technology to generate motor neurons from ALS patients carrying mutations in FUS. They found disturbed axonal transport in these motor neurons, but also identified genetic and pharmacological strategies that mitigate this defect.
Up to sixteen weeks of intermittent fasting without otherwise having to count calories helps fight obesity and other metabolic disorders. Such fasting already shows benefits after only six weeks, according to a new study.
Researchers have developed a computational model to quantify the mechanism by which CRISPR-Cas9 proteins find their genome-editing targets.
A new imaging system that offers a better way to monitor the brain changes indicative of Alzheimer's in mouse models of the disease could help speed new drug development.
Researchers examined exposure to high-magnitude head impacts (accelerations greater than 40g) in young athletes, 9 to 12 years of age, during football games and practice drills to determine under what circumstances these impacts occur and how representative practice activities are of game activities with respect to the impacts. This type of information can help coaches and league officials make informed decisions in structuring both practices and games to reduce risks in these young athletes.
Some 40 years since CT scans first revealed abnormalities in the brains of schizophrenia patients, international scientists say the disorder is a systemic disruption to the brain's entire communication system. The study sets the stage for future research on the debilitating mental illness that affects more than 21 million people worldwide. It is the largest analysis of 'white matter' differences in a psychiatric disorder to date.
Biomedical engineers report a significant advance in efforts to repair a damaged heart after a heart attack, using grafted heart-muscle cells to create a repair patch. The key was overexpressing a gene that activates the cell-cycle of the grafted muscle cells, so they grow and divide more than control grafted cells.
Researchers have discovered sex differences in a brain signaling pathway involved in reward learning and motivation that make male mice more vulnerable to an autism-causing genetic glitch.
A new study underscores the importance of early detection and treatment of melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer. The research indicates that the sooner patients were treated, the better their survival, particularly for stage I melanoma.
Most, and possibly all, ovarian cancers start, not in ovaries, but instead in the fallopian tubes attached to them, report investigators.
Nearly half of all US medical care is delivered by emergency departments, according to a new study. In recent years, the percentage of care delivered by emergency departments has grown. The paper highlights the major role played by emergency rooms in US health care.
Two recent studies have set the research groundwork for new avenues to treat influenza and anthrax poisoning. The studies used a series of experiments to identify key pathways and mechanisms previously unknown or overlooked in the body's defenses, and possible treatments already developed.
Students who attend a middle school compared to a K-8 school are likely to have a lower perception of their reading skills, finds a new study.
Exposure to high rates of conflicting information during an emergency is linked to increased levels of stress, and those who rely on text messages or social media reports from unofficial sources are more frequently exposed to rumors and experience greater distress, according to research.
Introducing a small levy of 10 pence per drink to the price of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) sold in Jamie's Italian restaurants across the UK is likely to have contributed to a significant decline in SSB sales, according to new research.
There is no scientific evidence that a workout widely marketed to manage the symptoms of a leaky bladder and/or womb prolapse actually works, conclude experts.
More than a third of patients at risk of developing type 2 diabetes avoided developing the condition after they were referred by their family doctor (GP) to a diabetes prevention program delivered by the commercial weight management provider, Weight Watchers, finds research.
Investigators have discovered a novel non-genetic cause of resistance to the targeted anti-cancer therapy cetuximab. Their findings suggest a strategy for overcoming this resistance.
An estimated 120 million people worldwide are infected with lymphatic filariasis, a parasitic, mosquito-borne disease that can cause major swelling and deformity of the legs, a condition known as elephantiasis. Scientists have shown that a portable scanning device can measure limb enlargement and disfigurement faster and more easily in patients with elephantiasis. The research tool makes it easy to obtain accurate measurements and determine whether treatments to reduce swelling are effective.
Researchers investigating pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGG), the most common type of brain tumor in children, have discovered key biological differences in how mutated genes combine with other genes to drive this childhood cancer. By shedding light on subtle distinctions in tumor biology, these findings offer clues to designing more effective anticancer treatments to precisely target tumors in individual patients.
A new study has found that lack of sleep among pregnant women may be a contributing factor to the development of gestational diabetes.
White men who exercise at high levels are 86 percent more likely than people who exercise at low levels to experience a buildup of plaque in the heart arteries by middle age, a new study suggests.
A study of tweets in the months before and after the 2010 passage of Arizona's "show me your papers" law, findings showed that the average tweet about Mexican immigrants and Hispanics, in general, became more negative. Researchers said the social media data was useful in determining whether people had changed their attitudes about immigrants as a result of the law or whether they had begun behaving differently.
A team of researchers reveals a mechanism that can explain how even relatively infrequent seizures can lead to long-lasting cognitive deficits in animal models.
We all know that a poor diet is unhealthy, but a new study finds that stress may just as harmful to our bodies as a really bad diet.
Stereotypes suggest that women love to talk, with some studies even finding that women say three times as much as men. But, new research shows there is an exception to this rule: professional STEM events, which could be indicative of the wider problem of gender inequality in the field.
Computerized brain training can result in improved cognitive skills in individuals with bipolar disorder, researchers have discovered for the first time.
Cellular-level changes to a part of the brain's reward system induced by chronic exposure to the psychoactive component of marijuana may contribute to the drug's pleasurable and potentially addictive qualities, suggests a study in young mice.
Ever tried to sell something you've owned for a while on Craigslist and found that no one is willing to pony up what you're asking? It's because you're asking too much.
Family members often play an important role in managing chronic illnesses, and a family approach may produce more effective, long-term benefits for the patient, according to a researcher.
Surgeons performing 11 common operations can turn to a free new prescribing tool based on data about how many opioid painkillers patients across Michigan actually took after their operations.
Scientists have performed neutron structural analysis of a vitamin B6-dependent protein, potentially opening avenues for new antibiotics and drugs to battle diseases such as drug-resistant tuberculosis, malaria and diabetes. Specifically, the team used neutron crystallography to study the location of hydrogen atoms in aspartate aminotransferase, or AAT, an enzyme vital to the metabolism of certain amino acids.
Killing cancer cells indirectly by powering up fat cells in the bone marrow could help acute myeloid leukemia patients, says a new study. Researchers found that boosting adipocytes, or fat cells, located in the bone morrow suppressed cancerous leukemia cells but -- in a surprise to the research team -- also induced the regeneration of healthy blood cells.
A history of gestational diabetes was associated with a modest higher long-term risk of cardiovascular disease in women in a new study, although the absolute rate of cardiovascular disease was low in the study's younger group of predominantly white women and adhering to a healthy lifestyle over time appeared to help mitigate the risk, according to a new article.
Half a century of research on how the brain learns to integrate visual inputs from the two eyes has provided important insights in critical period regulation, leading to the conclusion that it occurs within the cortex. Scientists have now made the surprising discovery that a brain region that passes on input from the eyes to the cortex also plays a crucial role in opening the critical period of binocular vision.
A new study examines how consumers allocated their time when searching offline and on the internet as they shopped for a new automobile, and what the outcomes were for price satisfaction.
A research team has elucidated the mechanism by which human cells induce inflammation upon detection of cytoplasmic DNA. Notably, the signal network involved differs from that used in the same context in mice.
College students considering careers in fields like archaeology or geology that require extensive work at remote field sites might want to find out how potential supervisors and advisers conduct themselves in the field. Do they establish clear ground rules for the behavior of everyone on the team? Are the rules consistently enforced? According to a new report, such factors likely influence whether students will witness or experience harassment while working far from home.
Pregnant women who had low socioeconomic status during childhood and who have poor family social support appear to prematurely age on a cellular level, potentially raising the risk for complications, a new study has found.
Arteriviruses, a family of single-stranded RNA viruses that belongs to the order Nidovirales, produce more proteins and messenger RNAs than previously reported, a finding that provides important insights about a virus that could potentially evolve to infect humans in the future, according to a new research study.
Scientists have reported results from a glioblastoma study in which they validated a biomarker indicative of a patient's prognosis and likely response to specific therapies.

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