Mistletoe and (a large) wine: Seven-fold increase in wine glass size over 300 yearsOur Georgian and Victorian ancestors probably celebrated Christmas with more modest wine consumption than we do today -- if the size of their wine glasses are anything to go by. Researchers have found that the capacity of wine glasses has increased seven-fold over the past 300 years, and most steeply in the last two decades as wine consumption rose.
Alleviating complications of babies born smaller: Is a growth factor injection the answer?Researchers have found a new potential treatment that may alleviate complications of babies born smaller than they should be, also called fetal growth restriction, which refers to poor growth of the fetus in the mother's womb during pregnancy.
Healthy eating linked to kids' happinessHealthy eating is associated with better self-esteem and fewer emotional and peer problems, such as having fewer friends or being picked on or bullied, in children regardless of body weight, according to a new study. Inversely, better self-esteem is associated with better adherence to healthy eating guidelines.
Microbes help turn Greek yogurt waste into fuelConsumers across the world enjoy Greek yogurt for its taste, texture, and protein-packed punch. Reaching that perfect formula, however, generates large volumes of food waste in the form of liquid whey. Now researchers have found a way to use bacteria to turn the leftover sugars and acids from Greek yogurt into molecules that could be used in biofuels or safe feedstock additives.
Increased air pollution linked to bad teenage behaviorA new study linking higher levels of air pollution to increased teenage delinquency is a reminder of the importance of clean air and the need for more foliage in urban spaces. The study suggests ambient air pollution may increase delinquent behavior among 9- to 18-year-olds in urban neighborhoods in Greater Los Angeles. The insidious effects are compounded by poor parent-child relationships and parental mental and social distress, researchers report.
Micro-grippers may be able to navigate unstructured environmentsMicro-grippers may be able to navigate unstructured environments and could help reduce risk during surgeries, according to a new study.
Electricity, eel-style: Soft power cells could run tomorrow's implantablesInspired by the electric eel, a flexible, transparent electrical device could lead to body-friendly power sources for implanted health monitors and medication dispensers, augmented-reality contact lenses and countless other applications.
Hydraulic fracturing negatively impacts infant healthHealth risks increase for infants born to mothers living within 2 miles of a hydraulic fracturing site, according to a new study.
ADHD med use during pregnancy and risk of birth defectsA new study leverages data from multiple large cohorts to define and quantify what, if any, increased risk may be posed by taking the most commonly used ADHD medications. The team found that one medication, methylphenidate, increased risk of heart defects by a small amount while another medication, amphetamines, did not.
Immune cells turn back time to achieve memoryWhat distinguishes memory CD8 T cells from untrained naive cells is that they can respond rapidly, within minutes or hours. The new research illuminates how they do it -- their genes are poised to respond, even years after initial activation.
Protein structure could unlock new treatments for cystic fibrosisBiochemists have used cryo-electron microscopy to determine the detailed architecture of the chloride channel TMEM16A. This protein is a promising target for the development of effective drugs to treat cystic fibrosis.
'Human chronobiome' study informs timing of drug delivery, precision medicine approachesA pilot study collected physiological information from six healthy young male volunteers as they went about their normal daily lives. Thousands of indicators were measured with wearable devices and smart phone apps. The study showed the feasibility to detect the chronobiome of an individual -- a collection of physiological traits in a 24-hour rhythmic pattern -- despite the 'noise' of everyday life.
Genetic study defies 'one-size-fits-all' approach to prescribing opioids for chronic painResearchers are assessing clinical and genetic characteristics of a large patient cohort suffering from chronic musculoskeletal pain and receiving prescription opioids. With this information, the multidisciplinary team will derive a clinical and genetic profile of prescription opioid-use disorder and use this knowledge to develop an “addiction risk score.” Findings from this study will be key in identifying those who are at low-risk from those who are at high-risk of prescription opioid-use disorder.
Lactic acid bacteria can protect against influenza a virusLactic acid bacteria, commonly used as probiotics to improve digestive health, can offer protection against different subtypes of influenza A virus, resulting in reduced weight loss after virus infection and lower amounts of virus replication in the lungs, according to a new study.
Women get less credit than men in the workplaceNew research suggests that women receive less credit for speaking up in the workplace than their male counterparts.
Cells sense their environment to explore itThe process through which cells are able to sense their environment is regulated by force detection, concludes new research.
Borrowing a leaf from biology to preserve threatened languagesBiodiversity scientists are using a language tree to help guide efforts to preserve threatened languages, outlines a new report.
Drug to treat retinal diseases with drops instead of injectionsA new compound has been developed to treat diseases of the retina, such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy, with the ability to be administered by ophthalmic drops instead of intraocular injections. The drug, which has been tested in animals, is a small interfering RNA capable of penetrating the cells of the retina and blocking the formation of new blood vessels.
A metallopeptide targets and disrupts mitochondrial function in breast cancer stem cellsKilling malignant mitochondria is one of the most promising approaches in the development of new anticancer drugs. Scientists have now synthesized a copper-containing peptide that is readily taken up by mitochondria in breast cancer stem cells, where it effectively induces apoptosis. The study also highlights the powerful therapeutic potential of the metallopeptides.
Fear of losing control and its role in anxiety disordersDid you lock the front door? Did you double-check? Are you sure? If this sounds familiar, perhaps you can relate to people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Help may be on the way. New research sheds light on how the fear of losing control over thoughts and actions impacts OCD-related behavior, including checking.
Default choices matter, especially for poorer, less educated individuals, study showsResearchers took advantage of a resulting federal lawsuit against a fraudulent company to test default choice architecture when the optimal choice was clear: end the subscriptions.
Tasting colors? Synesthesia induced with hypnosisHypnosis can alter the way certain individuals information process information in their brain. A new phenomenon was identified by researchers who have successfully used hypnosis to induce a functional analogue of synesthesia. The discovery can open a window into the previously unexplored domains of cognitive neuroscience.
175 years on, study finds where you live still determines your life expectancyResearchers revisited a study carried out 175 years ago which compared life expectancy in different areas of the UK. They found there is still a link between where you live, your social class and the age you live to and that people living in Liverpool still have lower life expectancy than those living in the rural area of Rutland.
Autism therapy: Social behavior restored via brain stimulationScientists are examining the feasibility of treating autistic children with neuromodulation after a new study showed social impairments can be corrected by brain stimulation.
Male virgins can still acquire HPV, study findsMen who have never engaged in sexual intercourse are still at risk for acquiring HPV, according to a new study.
Specially designed protein fights several species of bacteriaAs resistance to existing antibiotics increases, new approaches to serious bacterial infections are needed. Now researchers have investigated one such alternative.
Modulating immune responsesThe protein Roquin plays a key role in the regulation of immune reactions. Researchers have now uncovered details of the mechanism by which it controls the function of regulatory T cells in the adaptive arm of the immune system.
Noise sensitivity visible in brain structuresA new study suggests that noise sensitivity can be seen in the grey matter volume of brain structures linked to emotional and interoceptive processing.
Scientists develop new artificial ovary prototypeResearchers have taken important steps towards creating transplantable artificial ovaries. Once successful, these could be of value to women struggling with infertility or cancer patients who cannot conceive after undergoing radiation or chemotherapy. The research team has identified a protein formulation that closely resembles the structure and rigidity of the natural tissue lining a woman's ovaries.
Anti-stress compound reduces obesity and diabetesFor the first time, scientists could demonstrate that a stress protein found in muscle has a diabetes promoting effect. This finding could pave the way to a completely new treatment approach.
Voices and emotions: Forehead is the keyHow does intonation allow us to decode emotions? By observing neuronal activity in the brain, researchers have been able to map the cerebral regions we use to interpret vocal emotional representations. The results underline the essential role played by the frontal regions in interpreting emotions communicated orally. When the process does not function correctly -- following a brain injury -- an individual will lack the ability to interpret another person's emotions and intentions properly.
Stem cells sense neighborhood density to make decisions on their behaviorHuman skin is a remarkable organ serving as a barrier protecting us from pathogens, toxic substances and others. Our skin needs to constantly renew throughout our lifetime as well as change its size to perfectly fit and cover the body. To fulfill such a complex and dynamic behavior every cell within the skin has a specific task dependent on its position. Scientists have now shown that cell density and crowding play a critical role in instructing single stem cell fate decisions and movement of differentiating cells upwards within the tissue. This ensures that all cell types are correctly positioned within the tissue.
Pictures in your head -- the secret of beautiful poemsThe more a poem evokes vivid sensory imagery, the more we like it.
Nanotexturing creates bacteria-killing spikes on stainless steel surfacesBy using an electrochemical etching process on a common stainless steel alloy, researchers have created a nanotextured surface that kills bacteria while not harming mammalian cells. If additional research supports early test results, the process might be used to attack microbial contamination on implantable medical devices and on food processing equipment made with the metal.
Technology detecting RNase activityScientists have developed new technology to detect the activity of RNase H, a RNA degrading enzyme. The team used highly efficient signal amplification reaction termed catalytic hairpin assembly (CHA) to effectively analyze the RNase H activity. Considering that RNase H is required in the proliferation of retroviruses such as HIV, this research finding could contribute to AIDS treatments in the future, researchers say.
Alcohol taxes are too low, have not kept up with inflationState alcohol excise taxes are typically only a few cents per drink and have not kept pace with inflation, according to a new study. Raising those taxes represents an opportunity for states to increase revenues while simultaneously improving public health outcomes and costs related to excessive alcohol consumption.
Video game improves doctors' recognition and triage of severe trauma patientsPlaying an adventure video game featuring a fictitious, young emergency physician treating severe trauma patients was better than text-based learning at priming real doctors to quickly recognize the patients who needed higher levels of care, according to a new trial. The game tackles the annual problem of 30,000 preventable deaths occurring after injury, in part because severely injured patients aren't promptly transferred to trauma centers.
Father's rejection may increase child's social anxiety, lonelinessHealthy relationships with their parents are vital for adolescents' development and well-being, according to researchers who say rejection from fathers may lead to increases in social anxiety and loneliness.
Health risks linked to electromagnetic field exposureA study of real-world exposure to non-ionizing radiation from magnetic fields in pregnant women found a significantly higher rate of miscarriage, providing new evidence regarding their potential health risks.
Humans can feel molecular differences between nearly identical surfacesHow sensitive is the human sense of touch? Sensitive enough to feel the difference between surfaces that differ by just a single layer of molecules, a team of researchers has shown. Researchers say this fundamental knowledge will be useful for developing electronic skin, prosthetics that can feel, advanced haptic technology for virtual and augmented reality and more.
Synchrony of waves: Collective dynamicsResearchers report that endocytosis, which was previously thought to be a random process, actually occurs in a coordinated manner through collective dynamics. The work showed how a major endocytic pathway mediated by the protein clathrin, was found to commence with periodic traveling waves of clathrin, which were coupled temporally and spatially to downstream cortical actin waves. Clathrin endocytic waves were identified as the upstream initiator of cortical actin waves.
Cellular self-digestion process triggers autoimmune diseaseAutophagy allows cells to degrade and recycle their cellular components. Researchers have now demonstrated that the autophagy machinery in certain immune cells leads to the immune system attacking the central nervous system. The researchers are using these findings as a basis to look into new approaches to treating autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis.
High relationship quality in same-sex couplesA new Family Relations study provides robust evidence against deep-rooted social perceptions of same-sex relationships being conflictual, unhappy, and dysfunctional.
Plasmonic biosensors enable development of new easy-to-use health testsResearchers have developed a biosensor that enables creating a range of new easy-to-use health tests similar to home pregnancy tests. The plasmonic biosensor can detect diseased exosomes even by the naked eye. A rapid analysis by biosensors helps recognize inflammatory bowel diseases, cancer and other diseases rapidly and start relevant treatments in time. In addition to using discovery in biomedicine, industry may use advanced applications in energy.
Humans, unlike monkeys, turn a competitive situation into cooperative oneRhesus macaques and capuchin monkeys can find a stable solution when playing a competitive game in which one opponent always does better than the other, but only humans can find a solution that benefits both competitors equally, turning a competitive situation into a cooperative one, according to a study.
Researchers develop new model to predict which universities student athletes will attendWith revenue from college football at an unprecedented $3.4 billion annually, universities across the country invest millions each year in recruitment efforts for high school football players. But with talented players typically receiving multiple scholarship offers, team rosters are in limbo until student athletes commit to a university. However, a new study shares how social media can provide universities with valuable insight into the decision-making process of their recruits.
How diabetes in pregnancy affects baby's heartResearchers have discovered how high glucose levels -- whether caused by diabetes or other factors -- keep heart cells from maturing normally. Their findings help explain why babies born to women with diabetes are more likely to develop congenital heart disease.
Few California retailers offer pharmacist-prescribed birth control, despite lawA new law took effect in California last year allowing pharmacists to prescribe birth control, but few of the state's pharmacies are actually offering this service, according to new research.
Mosquito sex protein could provide key to controlling diseaseA protein transferred from male to female mosquitoes during sex influences female mating behavior -- a phenomenon that could be exploited to limit the spread of mosquito-borne illnesses like Zika and dengue.
Potassium is critical to circadian rhythms in human red blood cellsThe secrets of the circadian rhythms in red blood cells have been identified by researchers who have also identified potassium as the key to unraveling the mystery.
Trust in e-cigarette safety varies by worldview, source of messagingPublic health messaging about the safety of e-cigarettes needs to account for the worldviews of the target audience, with different groups displaying varying levels of trust depending on the source of the message, according to a recent study.
Important new aspects are revealed about the control of cell divisionExperts have published a new study on the mechanisms that regulate cell division and guarantee the correct distribution of chromosomes during this process. In particular, they especially highlight the fundamental role that an organelle, specifically the nucleolus, plays in the coordination of these processes.
Don't mix business with pleasureIn working life it's now almost expected that employees answer work-related emails after hours, or take their laptops with them on holiday. But the blurring of boundaries between work and personal life can affect people's sense of well-being and lead to exhaustion.
Stuttering: Stop signals in the brain disturb speech flow'G-g-g-g-g-ood morning' is a daily obstacle for people who stutter. However, so far, not much is known about the causes of persistent developmental stuttering, which is the most frequent speech disorder. Scientists have recently discovered that a hyperactive network in the right frontal part of the brain plays a crucial role in this deficit. It inhibits speech movement planning and execution, thereby interrupting the flow of speech.
Closing in on advanced prostate cancerMedical researchers have discovered a new avenue through which to attack prostrate cancer cells that have developed drug-resistance.
Epigenetic aging linked to bipolar disorderBipolar disorder may involve accelerated epigenetic aging, which could explain why persons with the disorder are more likely to have -- and die from -- age-related diseases, according to researchers.
A gold-standard cancer treatment is in decline, and money may be whyOffering brachytherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer ends up costing hospitals money, potentially explaining its declining use even though it's considered the most effective treatment.
3-D printed microfibers could provide structure for artificially grown body partsMuch as a frame provides structural support for a house and the chassis provides strength and shape for a car, a team of engineers believes they have a way to create the structural framework for growing living tissue using an off-the-shelf 3-D printer.
Simple test can diagnose two cancer typesA blood test using infrared spectroscopy can be used to diagnose two types of cancer, lymphoma and melanoma, according to a new study.
Estrogen discovery could shed new light on fertility problemsEstrogen produced in the brain is necessary for ovulation in monkeys, according to researchers who have upended the traditional understanding of the hormonal cascade that leads to release of an egg from the ovaries. Their findings may reveal the cause of some undiagnosed infertility problems and point the way to new methods of birth control.