Postnatal identification of Zika virus peptides from salivaFor the first time, researchers are using proteomics to examine proteins and peptides in saliva in order to accurately detect exposure to Zika virus. With 70 countries and territories reporting evidence of mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission, there is an increased need for a rapid and effective test for the virus. This study offers a new, quicker and more cost-effective way to test for the virus.
Materials scientists probe a protein's role in speeding Ebola's spreadScientists have pinpointed how a tiny protein seems to make the deadly Ebola virus particularly contagious.
Chemicals from gut bacteria maintain vitality in aging animalsA class of chemicals made by intestinal bacteria, known as indoles, help worms, flies and mice maintain mobility and resilience for more of their lifespans, scientists have discovered.
Cholesterol-lowering drugs may fight infectious diseaseScientists found a gene variant that affects cholesterol levels also could increase the risk of contracting typhoid fever. A common cholesterol-lowering drug could protect animal models against Salmonella Typhi, the culprit behind the potentially deadly infection. The findings give insight into the mechanisms that govern human susceptibility to infectious disease and point to possible avenues to protect against pathogens -- like Salmonella or Ebola -- whose entry into host cells is regulated by cholesterol.
People favor highly reviewed products, even when they shouldn'tWhen we're trying to decide which cell phone case to buy or which hotel room to book, we often rely on the ratings and reviews of others to help us choose. But new research suggests that we tend to use this information in ways that can actually work to our disadvantage.
'Exquisite selectivity' of neuronal wiring in the cerebral cortex revealed by researchAdvanced technologies has been used to illuminate the connectivity pattern of chandelier cells, a distinctive kind of inhibitory cell type in the mammalian brain. Scientists reveal for the first time how this candelabra-shaped cell interacts in a highly selective way with hundreds of excitatory cells in its neighborhood, receiving information from some, imparting information to others.
New tool identifies diabetes patients at risk for low blood sugar emergenciesA team of researchers has developed and validated a practical tool for identifying diabetes patients who are at the highest risk for being admitted to an emergency department or hospital due to severe hypoglycemia, or very low blood sugar.
Are there ethnic differences in cognitive outcomes based on BP targets?A new article investigates how various blood pressure targets for older patients treated for hypertension were associated with cognitive function and if ethnic differences existed in long-term cognitive outcomes.
What is the global prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder?New reserach estimates the global prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) among children and youth.
What hours are worked by women, men in dual-physician couples with kids?In dual-physician couples, women with children worked fewer hours than women without children but similar differences in hours worked were not seen among men, according to a new research letter.
Identifying vulnerabilities posed by synthetic biologyGiven the possible security vulnerabilities related to developments in synthetic biology -- a field that uses technologies to modify or create organisms or biological components -- a new report proposes a framework to identify and prioritize potential areas of concern associated with the field.
Security issues with health apps for dementia patients uncovered by researchersMany health apps designed to assist dementia patients and their caregivers have inadequate security policies or lack security policies altogether, new research concludes.
Searching for the 'signature' causes of BRCAness in breast cancerBreast cancer cells with defects in the DNA damage repair-genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 have a mutational signature known in cancer genomics as 'Signature 3.' But not all breast tumor cells exhibiting Signature 3 have BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. Therefore, some consider Signature 3 a biomarker for 'BRCAness,' a sign of a breakdown in BRCA-related DNA repair in general and not BRCA damage in particular.
Potential target for alcohol liver disease discoveredDrinking too much alcohol can damage the liver, but investigators have discovered a protective response in the organ that might be targeted to help treat alcoholic liver disease. The team also found that the same protective response may be involved in aversion to alcohol and could therefore help in the treatment of alcoholism.
Gut microbes may talk to the brain through cortisolGut microbes have been in the news lately. Recent studies show they can influence human health, behavior, and certain neurological disorders, such as autism. But just how do they communicate with the brain? Results from a new study suggest a pathway of communication between certain gut bacteria and brain metabolites, by way of a compound in the blood known as cortisol. And unexpectedly, the finding provides a potential mechanism to explain the characteristics of autism.
Link between cells associated with aging, bone lossA causal link between senescent cells -- the cells associated with aging and age-related disease -- and bone loss has been found in mice. Targeting these cells led to an increase in bone mass and strength.
Flowing fluid bends tiny hairs inside usEngineers have predicted how tiny hairs lining blood vessels and intestines bend to flowing fluid. The results may help to design microfluidic devices such as hydraulic valves and diodes.
Comprehensive genomic analysis offers insights into causes of Wilms tumor developmentMutations involving a large number of genes converge on two pathways during early kidney development that lead to Wilms tumor, new research concludes.
Zika virus stifles pregnant women's weakened immune system to harm babyThe Zika virus suppresses a pregnant woman's immune system, enabling the virus to spread and increasing the chances an unborn baby will be harmed, study finds. The study is the first to report that the Zika virus targets specific white blood cells, handicapping a pregnant woman's immune system in a way that almost resembles HIV. Pregnant women are more prone to immune suppression. Zika exploits that weakness to infect and replicate.
How a non-coding RNA encourages cancer growth and metastasisA pro-tumor environment in the cell can encourage a gene to produce an alternative form of RNA that enables cancer to spread, report researchers.
Do video game players make the best unmanned pilots?New research highlights the usefulness of video game players as unmanned aircraft operators.
80 percent of Ebola survivors suffer disabilities one year after dischargeNew research highlights the need for long-term rehabilitation of Ebola survivors after almost 80 percent of those interviewed were found to have major limitations in mobility, cognition and vision.
Nanotechnology helps rewarm fast-frozen donor tissue, enabling long-term viabilityResearchers have developed a new method for thawing frozen tissue that may enable long-term storage and subsequent viability of tissues and organs for transplantation. The method, called nanowarming, prevents tissue damage during the rapid thawing process that would precede a transplant.
Immune system can be modulated by targeted manipulation of cell metabolismIn its attempt to fight a serious bacterial infection, caused by listeria, for example, the immune system can become so over-activated that the resulting inflammatory response and its consequences can quickly lead to death. Scientists have now demonstrated in an animal model that such an excessive response by the immune system can be modulated by targeted manipulation of the sugar metabolism to produce an immune response that efficiently eliminates the pathogens without causing any harmful secondary reactions.
Better odor recognition in odour-colour synesthesiaPeople who see colors while perceiving smells are better at distinguishing between different smells and different colors, and are better at naming odors, compared to a group without synesthesia.
Overcoming the last line of antibiotic resistance against bacterial infectionsA recent study presents a comprehensive overview of S. aureus' remarkable resilience against our body's immune system and how to better protect against deadly infections, with implications for overcoming antibiotic resistance.
Our brains do change from early to mid-adulthoodScientists have been able to accurately estimate an individual's age from their brain structure. The researchers found that significant microstructural changes occur in the brain from early to mid-adulthood. Until now, scientists thought that brain structure was relatively stable during this period of life, and this is one of the first studies to show that our brains continue to change throughout our early and mid-adulthood.
Biochemical 'fingerprints' reveal diabetes progressionResearchers describe a new method to study biochemical changes that occur in the pancreas during the development of diabetes. The method is based on molecular spectroscopy and can be used to extract biochemical profiles (or 'fingerprints') containing information about disease progression. The method could facilitate improved understanding of the mechanistic processes on molecular and cellular levels that are key to the development of diabetes.
Chronic stress induces fatal organ dysfunctions via a new neural circuitNew research reveals the mechanisms behind the effects of chronic stress and tiny inflammations in the brain on fatal gut failure.
Many young cancer patients do not receive adequate fertility information and supportAll cancer patients of reproductive age should be provided with fertility information and referrals for fertility preservation, researchers urge.
Newly developed nomograms provide accurate predictions for patients with oropharyngeal cancerResearchers recently developed and validated a nomogram that can predict 2-year and 5-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) for patients with local-regionally advanced oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) treated primarily with radiation-based therapy.
Both chimpanzees and humans spontaneously imitate each other's actionsDecades of research has shown that apes, in spite of their proverbial aping abilities, are rather poor imitators, especially when compared to human children. Current theories hold that apes are worse imitators because they lack this social and communicative side of imitation. A new study has instead targeted the interactive side of imitation directly, and finds that the divide between humans and chimpanzees is less clear cut.
Peer influence doubles smoking risk for adolescentsHaving friends who smoke doubles the risk that youth ages 10 to 19 will pick up the habit, finds new meta-analysis of 75 longitudinal teen smoking studies. This influence is more powerful in collectivistic cultures than in individualistic ones.
Spaser can detect, kill circulating tumor cells to prevent cancer metastases, study findsA nanolaser known as the spaser can serve as a super-bright, water-soluble, biocompatible probe capable of finding metastasized cancer cells in the blood stream and then killing these cells, according to a new research study.
'Electronic skin' takes wearable health monitors to the next levelResearchers have developed a new, electronic skin which can track heart rate, respiration, muscle movement and other health data. The electronic skins offers several improvements over existing trackers, including greater flexibility, portability, and the ability to stick the self-adhesive patch.
Before the flood: What drives preparedness?More targeted efforts are needed from both the public and private insurance sectors in order to encourage people to take action to reduce their risk of flood damage, according to a new study of three European countries.
Repairing damaged hearts with self-healing heart cellsNew research has discovered a potential means to trigger damaged heart cells to self-heal. The discovery could lead to groundbreaking forms of treatment for heart diseases. For the first time, researchers have identified a long non-coding ribonucleic acid (ncRNA) that regulates genes controlling the ability of heart cells to undergo repair or regeneration. This novel RNA, called 'Singheart,' may be targeted for treating heart failure in the future.
Smart label could one day let you know when to toss food and cosmeticsDetecting food and cosmetic spoilage and contamination. Identifying new medicinal plants in a remote jungle. Authenticating tea and wine. Scientists have developed a low-cost, portable, paper-based sensor that can potentially carry out all of these functions with easy-to-read results.
People who 'hear voices' can detect hidden speech in unusual soundsPeople who hear voices that other people can't hear may use unusual skills when their brains process new sounds, according to new research.
Licorice is a hot trend in hot flashes, but could interact with medicationsLicorice roots have a flavorful history, having been used in ancient Egyptian teas and in traditional Chinese medicines, all the way to today as a flavoring agent and candy. And some women now take licorice extracts as supplements to treat menopausal symptoms. But scientists caution that licorice could pose a health risk by interacting with medications.
New vaccine could someday fight the effects of opioid combinationsSubstance abuse is a continuing problem in the US, to the point of being an 'epidemic.' Treatments exist, but far too often patients relapse with devastating impacts on themselves and those around them. Now, scientists report that they have made progress toward a vaccine against the effects of fentanyl, a synthetic opioid, in combination with heroin.
Sedentary behavior increases risk of death for frail, inactive adultsSedentary time, for example, time spent sitting, increases the risk of death for middle-aged and older people who are frail and inactive, but does not appear to increase the risk for non-frail people who are inactive, according to a new study.
Comparison of screening recommendations indicates annual mammographyWhen to initiate screening for breast cancer, how often to screen, and how long to screen are questions that continue to spark emotional debates.
Behavior theory may offer key to ensuring infants are put to sleep safelyIt is still common for infants to be placed in unsafe sleeping positions by their caregivers, report researchers. Fewer than half of infants are always placed on their backs for sleep, the recommended safe sleep position.
Racial stereotypes influence perception of NFL quarterbacksRacial stereotypes affect the public's perception of NFL quarterbacks and may, in some cases, become a self-fulfilling prophecy for black athletes, new research shows.
Back-to-school worries for parents? One in three very concerned bullying, cyberbullyingWhat parents are most worried about as their children prepare to head back to school.
Testing TVs and tablets for 'green' screensToday, researchers report preliminary results suggesting that under simulated landfill conditions, quantum dots can leach out of TVs and tablets. But because this happens in such tiny amounts, the team says that in the grand scheme of things, it might make sense to use the more toxic quantum dots that are made with a more eco-friendly process. The researchers are presenting their results at the 254th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society.
No guts no glory: Harvesting the microbiome of athletesScientists have tapped into the microbiome of elite runners and rowers, and have identified particular bacteria that may aid athletic performance. The goal is to develop probiotic supplements that may help athletes -- and even amateur fitness enthusiasts -- recover from a tough workout or more efficiently convert nutrients to energy. The researchers will present their work today at the 254th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society.
Silk could improve sensitivity, flexibility of wearable body sensorsFrom smart socks to workout clothes that measure exertion, wearable body sensors are becoming the latest 'must-have' technology. Now scientists report they are on the cusp of using silk, one of the world's most coveted fabrics, to develop a more sensitive and flexible generation of these multi-purpose devices that monitor a slew of body functions.
Mussel-inspired glue could one day make fetal surgery saferWhether to perform surgery on a fetus is a heart-wrenching decision. This type of surgery involves penetrating the delicate amniotic sac, increasing health risks to the fetus. Now researchers report the development of a glue, inspired by the tenacious grip of mussels on slippery rocks, that could one day help save the lives of the youngest patients.
Sugars in human mother's milk are new class of antibacterial agentsA new study has found that sugars in mother's' milk do not just provide nutrition for babies but also help protect them from bacterial infections, making them a new class of antimicrobial agent.
Novel approach to track HIV infectionScientists used a novel live-cell fluorescent imaging system that allowed them for the first time to identify individual viral particles associated with HIV infection.
Seeking the secret ingredient in the original smallpox vaccineThanks to a secret vaccine ingredient as well as a net of worldwide researchers and successful vaccination campaigns, smallpox was finally eradicated in 1977. A new study provides an in-depth investigation of the mysteries associated with the development of smallpox vaccine and is a rich and interesting account of how the vaccine lymph was spread worldwide.
New Bioimaging technique is fast and economicalA new approach to optical imaging makes it possible to quickly and economically monitor multiple molecular interactions in a large area of living tissue -- such as an organ or a small animal; technology that could have applications in medical diagnosis, guided surgery, or pre-clinical drug testing.
To reduce postoperative pain, consider sleep -- and caffeineA new preclinical study found that a brief period of extended wakefulness before surgery enhances pain and prolongs recovery time after surgery. Caffeine administration helped to reduce the harmful effects of sleep loss on subsequent surgical pain.
Study of California kidney cancer shows declining incidence, end of a trendA study of kidney cancer incidence in California over 25 years is the first report to demonstrate that the rising rate of kidney cancer seen in the US over the past two decades may have ended.
How physical exercise protects the heartNew research helps to elucidate part of the mechanism whereby aerobic exercise protects the sick heart. The benefits of exercise range from prevention of cachexia -- severe loss of weight and muscle mass -- and control of arterial blood pressure to improved cardiac function, postponing a degenerative process that causes progressive heart cell death. About 70% of heart failure patients die from the condition within five years.
How immature cells grow up to be red blood cellsResearchers have identified the mechanism behind red blood cell specialization and revealed that it is controlled by an enzyme called UBE2O. This finding could spark the development of new treatments for blood disorders and cancers.
Despite benefits, half of parents against later school start timesLeading pediatrics and sleep associations agree: Teens shouldn't start school so early. Yet recent research finds parents are split almost down the middle on whether they support delays in school start times that might permit their 13- to 17-year-olds to sleep later on school days.