An increasing proportion of women who are 60 years of age and older are drinkingMost older Americans drink alcohol. Given that this segment of the population is projected to almost double by 2050, reaching 112 million, in the future, there will likely be many more older drinkers in the United States than currently. Importantly, older individuals are more sensitive to alcohol’s effects than their younger counterparts, and are also more likely to take prescription medications that can interact negatively with alcohol, potentially leading to falls and other injuries. This study examined trends in drinking status among U.S. adults 60 years of age and older.
New gene discovered associated with Tau, a common form of brain pathologyInvestigators have reported the discovery of a new gene that is associated with susceptibility to a common form of brain pathology called Tau that accumulates in several different conditions, including Alzheimer's disease, certain forms of dementia and Parkinsonian syndromes as well as chronic traumatic encephalopathy that occurs with repeated head injuries.
Moderate drinking linked to lower risk of some -- but not all -- heart conditionsModerate drinking is associated with a lower risk of several, but not all, cardiovascular diseases, finds a large study of UK adults. The finding that moderate drinking is not universally associated with a lower risk of all cardiovascular conditions suggests a more nuanced approach to the role of alcohol in prevention of cardiovascular disease is necessary.
Neurosurgical practices must evolve and transform to adapt to rapidly changing healthcare industryNeurosurgeons hoping to successfully navigate the rapidly changing healthcare industry must advance their strategies and adapt new ways of thinking in order to continue to thrive in an evolving environment, say authors of a new report.
Inactive teens develop lazy bonesInactive teens have weaker bones than those who are physically active, according to a new study.
Amazingly fast, cheap genome sequencing: Zika virus mosquito genome assembled from scratchA team of scientists has developed a new way to sequence genomes, which can assemble the genome of an organism, entirely from scratch, dramatically cheaper and faster.
In a sample of blood, researchers probe for cancer cluesOne day, patients may be able to monitor their body's response to cancer therapy just by having their blood drawn. A new study has taken an important step in that direction by measuring a panel of cancer proteins in rare, individual tumor cells that float in the blood.
Seven months after Rio Olympics, Zika continues to plague babies in urban slumsThe near-paranoia related to Zika leading up to the 2016 Rio Games could have been avoided by heeding the lessons of previous epidemics, argues a new study.
Lighting up antibiotic resistanceCarbapenems are among the 'antibiotics of last resort' and can fight infections for which other drugs have long lost their effectiveness. However, even carbapenem-resistant pathogenic strains have emerged over the last decades.
Successful method to reduce dental implant failureScientists are evaluating the effectiveness of a new nanocoating for dental implants to reduce the risk of peri-implantitis.
On the trail of Parkinson's diseaseThe molecular causes of diseases such as Parkinson's need to be understood as a first step towards combating them. Chemists recently succeeded in analyzing what happens when selective mutations of the alpha-synuclein protein occur -- a protein that is closely linked to Parkinson's disease.
Severe psoriasis predominantly affects menThe fact that men are overrepresented in psoriasis registers and consume more psoriasis care have long led researchers to believe that the common skin disease disproportionately affects men. A unique study with 5,438 Swedish psoriasis patients now reveals that women have a statistically significant lower incidence of severe psoriasis compared to men.
Hydrophobic proteins on virus surfaces can help purify vaccinesThrough experimental and computational tests, new research expands on the theory of virus surface hydrophobicity. By being slightly water-repellent, the outer layers of proteins in virus capsids affect how it interacts with cells and the environment. Understanding this more can improve vaccine production and virus detection.
An algorithm that knows when you'll get bored with your favorite mobile gameResearchers have developed a new algorithm that predicts when a user will leave a mobile game. This information is useful for game studios so that they can design strategies to maintain the player's interest.
Computer program developed to diagnose and locate cancer from a blood sampleResearchers in the United States have developed a computer program that can simultaneously detect cancer and identify where in the body the cancer is located, from a patient's blood sample.
Critical step in DNA repair, cellular aging pinpointedThe body's ability to repair DNA damage declines with age, which causes gradual cell demise, overall bodily degeneration and greater susceptibility to cancer. Now, research reveals a critical step in a molecular chain of events that allows cells to mend their broken DNA.
Evidence-based diagnostic model for mental illnessResearchers have has developed a new, evidence-based alternative to the mental health field's long-established diagnostic tools for the classification, treatment, and research of mental disorders. The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) addresses what the authors say are limitations to the reliability and validity of traditional models.
What does congenital Zika syndrome look like?Researchers describe the phenotypic spectrum or set of observable characteristics of congenital Zika (ZIKV) syndrome, based upon clinical evaluations and neuroimaging of 83 Brazilian children with presumed or confirmed ZIKV congenital infections.
People often use the word 'you' rather than 'I' to cope with negative experiencesResearchers say it may seem contradictory that a means of generalizing to people at large is used when reflecting on one's most personal and idiosyncratic experiences.
Most cancer mutations are due to random DNA copying 'mistakes'Scientists report data from a new study providing evidence that random, unpredictable DNA copying 'mistakes' account for nearly two-thirds of the mutations that cause cancer. Their research is grounded on a novel mathematical model based on DNA sequencing and epidemiologic data from around the world.
Membrane lipids hop in and out of rafts in the blink of an eyeNew fluorescent lipids demonstrate how specialized regions in the cell membrane function, explain researchers in a new report.
Olfactory receptors: New molecular targets detected in colorectal cancer cellsGrowth of colorectal cancer cells can be inhibited with the odorant troenan, report scientists. The researchers detected the olfactory receptor OR51B4 in tumor cells taken from the rectum and colon cancer cell lines. They analyzed which odorant activates the receptor and in what way the activation affects the cells.
Designer proteins fold DNA: Biophysicists construct complex hybrid structures using DNA and proteinsScientists have developed a new method that can be used to construct custom hybrid structures using DNA and proteins. The method opens new opportunities for fundamental research in cell biology and for applications in biotechnology and medicine.
Encouraging results for patients with aggressive brain cancerPatients diagnosed with a glioblastoma, and who undergo current standard treatment, have a median survival of 16 months. Based on recent information on the mechanisms of chemotherapy, a team of researchers developed a new clinical approach overcome treatment resistance that increased the median survival to 22 months -- bringing much needed hope to those affected by this aggressive disease.
OTUD6B gene mutations cause intellectual and physical disabilityMutations of the OTUD6B gene result in a spectrum of physical and intellectual deficits, an international team of researchers has discovered.
New study resolves the structure of the human protein that causes cystic fibrosisIn order to better understand how genetic mutations give rise to cystic fibrosis, researchers need to map the protein responsible for the disorder. The new structure has led to new insights on how this molecular channel functions.
Sleep deprivation impairs ability to interpret facial expressionsWhen you're tired, your ability to interpret subtle expressions of happiness and sadness can begin to deteriorate, researchers have found. However, the ability to read more primitive survival-based emotions, like anger and fear, remains intact.
Statins may provide treatment alternative for chronic liver diseaseStatin drugs are widely used to manage high cholesterol and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. But in a new review of more than 50 studies, researchers cite reductions in liver inflammation and improvements in other related factors as reasons why statins make good candidates for treating chronic liver disease.
New study shows circular RNA can encode for proteinsScientists have discovered a protein-encoding function for circular RNA, a form of RNA until now considered non-coding. This kind of RNA molecule is highly active in brain cells. By identifying the function of circRNAs, the research helps advance our understanding of molecular biology, and can be helpful in understanding aging or neuro-degenerative diseases.
New stem cell method produces millions of human brain and muscle cells in daysScientists have created a new technique that simplifies the production of human brain and muscle cells -- allowing millions of functional cells to be generated in just a few days. The results open the door to producing a diversity of new cell types that could not be made before in order to study disease.
Limiting protein reduces post-heart attack injury in miceAccording to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 735,000 Americans experience a heart attack each year. Opening a blocked coronary artery to restore blood flow to the heart prevents sudden cardiac death. However, doing so also triggers cardiac damage through oxidative stress and inflammation, which eventually can lead to heart failure. Researchers have identified a protein that can be targeted to decrease post-heart attack injury and prevent heart failure in a mouse model.
Virtual environment education reduces anxiety prior to radiation therapyRadiation therapists and physicians know that education can reduce anxiety before radiation treatment but lack a standardized tool. In an effort to solve this problem, a multidisciplinary team conducted a pilot study to see if a virtual environment education program could reduce some of the anxiety their patients face.
Researchers find another immune system link science said didn't existA part of the body thought to be disconnected from the immune system actually interacts with it, report investigators, and that discovery helps explain cases of male infertility, certain autoimmune diseases and even the failure of cancer vaccines.
White families with children drawn to less diverse neighborhoods, schoolsRacial segregation is declining, but it remains higher for families with children than those without, a new study shows. Race appears to be a 'proxy' for school quality for many white families with children as they decide where and in which school districts they want to live, suggests a new report.
Study shows how brain combines subtle sensory signals to take noticeNew research explains how the developing brain learns to integrate and react to subtle but simultaneous sensory cues -- sound, touch and visual -- that would be ignored individually.
When people prepare for conflict, dominant leaders take the stageOne popular theory holds that dominant leaders are supported by those who fear new situations and threats. However, new research shows that support for dominant leaders is not born of fear, but of a wish to handle the country's problems by aggressive means.
3-D bioprinted human cartilage cells can be implantedResearchers have successfully induced human cartilage cells to live and grow in an animal model, using 3-D bioprinting. The results will move development closer to a potential future in which it will be possible to help patients by giving them new body parts through 3-D bioprinting.
Hand-held X-ray sourcesElectronic oscillations in graphene could make a tabletop — or even handheld — source of X-rays a reality, report researchers.
Blood fatty acids reveal your child's dietEating lots of sugary candy may strain the liver, alter the body’s fatty acid metabolism and increase the risk of cardiometabolic diseases already in childhood. Children’s blood fatty acid composition reflects their diet – but luckily this composition can be influenced by lifestyle interventions, say researchers.
Male hormone plays key role in ovarian developmentThe male “androgen” hormone is an important element in the ovarian development of female chicken embryos, more so than in the development of male testes, scientists have discovered.
Spiritual retreats change feel-good chemical systems in the brainMore Americans than ever are turning to spiritual, meditative and religious retreats as a way to reset their daily life and enhance well-being. Now, researchers show there are changes in the dopamine and serotonin systems in the brains of retreat participants.
Largest survey to date of patient and family experience at US children's hospitalsA survey of more than 17,000 parents of hospitalized children gives mixed responses about the quality of the inpatient experience at 69 US children's hospitals.
Biopesticide could defeat insecticide resistance in bedbugsA fungal biopesticide that shows promise for the control of bed bugs is highly effective even against bed-bug populations that are insecticide resistant, according to research.
Transgender college freshmen drink more, experience more blackouts, study showsA survey of more than 422,000 college freshmen found that students who identified as transgender were more likely than their cisgender peers to experience negative consequences from drinking, including memory blackouts, academic problems and conflicts such as arguments or physical fights.
Zinc in the retina may indicate a new way to protect and regenerate the optic nerve in glaucoma patientsConnecting pieces of information by finding a common thread often takes glaucoma researchers in unexpected directions. Zinc is one such thread that joined together different experts in study.
Analysis of letters written by 'Mad' King George III supports psychiatric diagnosis of maniaResearchers have concluded that King George III was probably suffering from a mental illness after computer analysis of hundreds of his letters.
Heart tissue grown on spinach leavesResearchers face a fundamental challenge as they seek to scale up human tissue regeneration from small lab samples to full-size tissues and organs: how to establish a vascular system that delivers blood deep into the developing tissue. Researchers have now successfully turned to plants, culturing beating human heart cells on spinach leaves that were stripped of plant cells.
Humans, smartphones may fail frequently to detect face morph photosBoth humans and smartphones show a degree of error in distinguishing face morph photos from their 'real' faces on fraudulent identity cards, new research has found.
Too much structured knowledge hurts creativity, shows studyStructure organizes human activities and help us understand the world with less effort, but it can be the killer of creativity, concludes a new study.
Optical tool monitors brain's circulatory response to painA new report demonstrates that an optical imaging tool used to monitor regional blood flow and tissue oxygenation may be used to track the brain's response to acute pain in infants, children, and adults.
Brain 'rewires' itself to enhance other senses in blind peopleThe brains of those who are born blind make new connections in the absence of visual information, resulting in enhanced, compensatory abilities such as a heightened sense of hearing, smell and touch, as well as cognitive functions (such as memory and language) according to a new study.
Silence is golden: Suppressing host response to Ebola virus may help to control infectionThe Ebola virus causes a severe, often fatal illness when it infects the human body. Initially targeting cells of the immune system called macrophages, white blood cells that absorb and clear away pathogens, a new study has found a way to potentially 'silence' these Ebola virus-infected macrophages.
How does spousal suicide affect bereaved spouse mentally, physically?People bereaved by the suicide of a spouse were at increased risk for mental and physical disorders, suicidal behavior, death and adverse social events, according to a nationwide study based on registry data conducted in Denmark.
Use of mobile app reduces number of in-person follow-up visits after surgeryPatients who underwent ambulatory breast reconstruction and used a mobile app for follow-up care had fewer in-person visits during the first 30 days after the operation without affecting complication rates or measures of patient-reported satisfaction, according to a study.
Surprising new role for lungs: Making bloodUsing video microscopy in the living mouse lung, scientists have revealed that the lungs play a previously unrecognized role in blood production.
First mutations in human life discoveredThe earliest mutations of human life have been observed by researchers. Analyzing genomes from adult cells, the scientists could look back in time to reveal how each embryo developed. The study shows that from the two-cell stage of the human embryo, one of these cells becomes more dominant than the other and leads to a higher proportion of the adult body.
Brief module effective in teaching hemorrhage control basics to staff in a large workplaceA medical team has developed a way to effectively provide a large group of people with basic knowledge and skills to locate and use bleeding control equipment to stop life-threatening bleeding in severely injured people.
Scientists identify a new way gut bacteria break down complex sugarsNew light has been shed on the functioning of human gut bacteria which could help to develop medicines in the future to improve health and well-being.
Weight-bearing exercises promote bone formation in menOsteoporosis affects more than 200 million people worldwide and is a serious public health concern, according to research. Now, newly published work is the first in men to show that long-term, weight-bearing exercises decrease sclerostin, a protein made in the bone, and increase IGF-1, a hormone associated with bone growth. These changes promote bone formation, increasing bone density.
Mapping the future of precision medicine in Parkinson's diseaseA new transformative approach to defining, studying and treating Parkinson's disease has been revealed by investigators. Rather than approaching Parkinson's disease as a single entity, the international cadre of researchers advocates targeting therapies to distinct 'nodes or clusters' of patients based on specific symptoms or molecular features of their disease.